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Frazer Nash FN20 Tail Turret for Avro Lancaster
This picture shows the Frazer Nash FN20 tail turret, as used on the Avro Lancaster.
Automatic Gun-Laying Turret
The Automatic Gun-Laying Turret, also known as the Frazer-Nash FN121, was a radar-directed, rear gun turret fitted to some British bombers from 1944. AGLT incorporated both a low-power tail warning radar and fire-control system, which could detect approaching enemy fighters, aim and automatically trigger machine guns – in total darkness or cloud cover if necessary. The radar warning and fire-control system itself was commonly known by the code names Village Inn and Z Equipment ", as well as the serial number TR3548.
It was assumed that all Royal air force bombers and aircraft attached to bomber aircraft had IFF infrared lamp in the nose that would allow the rear gunners to prevent fratricide. In practice, however, allied aircraft without lamps often crossed the plane AGLT and even when they were installed and in working condition, lamp has not always been visible to gunners, for different reasons. As a result, the village Inn was generally used solely as an early warning system. According to the official history of the army during the Second world war, fully automated, "blind shooting" was used by the gunners only four of every 1.000 sorties.
1. Development. (Развитие)
The system was developed by a team led by Dr. Philip Dee and designed under the aegis of chief designer Dr Alan Hodgkin, after receiving a request from the air Ministry for such a system in early 1943. Village Inn has been inspected and tested in scientific telecommunications the creation of the Tre at RAF Defford using the Lancaster mark I serial number ND712 Lancaster mark III JB705 and MK II LL736 and LL737 and subsequently put into production.
The system includes a transmitter / receiver installed in the navigation compartment, operating through a conical scanning parabolic antenna attached to the back of the turret. He worked on a wavelength of 9.1 cm 3 GHz with pulse repetition frequency of 660 Hertz. Use the magnetron was CV186 about 35kW. Electronics sends a signal back to the tower, where it was displayed on a cathode ray tube CRT screen located next to the sight, whose image was projected on the mark IIC gyro sight via the translucent mirror.
Initially, ranging information was provided only to the transmitter, located in the compartment for the navigators and was read to the gunner over the intercom, the gunner using foot pedals to set the target range on the eyes. In production equipment the process was automatic, the range information is fed electronically directly into the sight, with the navigators "report" only to be preserved for the benefit of the rest of the crew. Gunner just drove his weapon in place "Blip" in the center of sights of the sight and opened fire when the range was appropriate. Windage, bullet drop, and other factors have already been calculated at the sight.
The first squadron to use for online village Inn was No. 101 squadron RAF, based at Ludford Magna, in the autumn of 1944, shortly after No. 49 in the attack on Darmstadt on 11 Sep / 12, 156 and 635 squadrons.
The village hotel was eventually produced four brands:
AGLT Mark II (AGLT Марк II) - modified, improved, Mark I - soon discontinued - ARI 5561.
AGLT Mark III (AGLT Марк III) - scanning aerial mounted remotely from turret. Scan independent of turrets movements - ARI 5562.
AGLT Mark IV (AGLT Марк IV) - ARI 5632.
AGLT Mark I (AGLT Марк я) - initial design - Airborne Radio Installation ARI 5559.
The system was also installed in the tower of rose, at least one of Avro Lincoln B. MK. II, although how many is not known. Some Lincolns are equipped with a Bolton Paul type D tail turret and turned on the equipment.
This type of system was made in USA, Emerson Electric St. Louis, Missouri, when Emerson model III tail turret was equipped with APG8 blind radar tracking Emerson and installed on canadian reason Lancaster KB805. The system was found to have no advantages over the British system and the project was subsequently dropped.
- gun turret or turret is a location from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility, and some cone of fire. A modern gun turret is
- Gun laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece or turret such as a gun howitzer, or mortar, on land, air or at sea, against surface or air targets
- Automatic Gun - Laying Turret which was fitted with a 3 GHz 9.1 cm radar. The image from the radar s cathode ray tube was projected onto the turret s
- gun laying from the individual turrets to a central position usually in a plotting room below armor although individual gun mounts and multi - gun turrets
- turret is occupied by the gunner and first loader and houses the various fire control optics, electro - mechanical gun laying controls, the automatic propellant
- originated from and automatically slew the main gun to it, so that the tank crew can return fire and so that the stronger frontal turret armour is facing
- auto cannon, a coaxial 7.62 mm PKT machine gun an AT - 5 Spandrel ATGM, as well as an AGS - 17D 30 mm automatic grenade launcher. Limited numbers have been
- APC variant can be armed with turrets armed with weapons ranging from 7.62 mm machine gun see Variant with BTM - 208 turret to 20 mm cannon MILAN Anti - tank
- fire for front line deployment. Anti - aircraft guns are usually mounted in a quickly - traversing turret with a high rate of elevation, for tracking fast - moving
- tornpjas m 57 75 mm turret gun model 1957 was developed for the Swedish Coastal Artillery in the 1950s as a light and comparatively cheap gun that would replace
- cancelled and the turret used on the T22E1 T20E2: 3 inch gun and torsion bar suspension. Completed as the T20E3. T20E3: 76 mm gun and torsion bar suspension
- at some point: No. 23 Operational Training Unit RAF No. 1323 Automatic Gun Laying Turret Flight RAF No. 1409 Meteorological Flight RAF No. 1696 Bomber
- simpler than the L7 gun especially the recoil system The cannon is equipped with a thermal sleeve, fume extractor and a semi - automatic breech mechanism
- complete T - 55 tank turret without the stabilizer but furnished with a manually operated ammunition lift, a chute for used cases, and gun laying apparatus allowing
- machine gun Inside the turret are the stations of both the gunner and the commander. The 60 mm autocannon can be replaced by a variety of guns from 25 mm
- with 45 mm gun ST - 26 ST stands for saperniy tank or engineer tank - engineer tank a bridge - laying tank based on the twin - turreted T - 26 mod. 1931
- systems, usually hidden in well - camouflaged armored turrets for example Swedish 12 cm automatic turret gun In these countries the coastal artillery was
- dreadnoughts had two guns to a turret One solution to the problem of turret layout was to put three or even four guns in each turret Fewer turrets meant the ship
- 14 - cylinder, 1130 hp radial aircraft engine Mark 16 1 triple 6 in 47 Turret US naval gun in triple mount configuration, used on light cruisers Mark 16 torpedo
- first test gun was a re - barreled Nordenfelt version of the Finspong gun to which was added a semi - automatic loading mechanism. Testing of this gun in 1929
- in 1972. A new two - man turret armed with a 73 mm Zarnitsa semi - automatic smoothbore gun and a 12.7 mm coaxial heavy machine gun was installed. The original
- Firefly. The gun a modified design that was produced specifically for the Firefly, was rotated through 90 degrees to mount into the turret of the Sherman
- more effective. The FN - 121 was the Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT an FN - 120 fitted with Village Inn gun - laying radar. Aircraft fitted with Village
- front. The BTR - D has no turret but is armed with two bow - mounted machine guns PKB and can be fitted with pintle - mounted automatic grenade launchers AGS - 17
- The fire - control system of the PLZ - 45 includes an automatic laying system, optical sighting system, gun orientation and navigation system, and a GPS receiver
- test the automatic aiming system, they attached the outputs from the radar to a gun turret taken from a Boeing B - 29 bomber, removing the guns and replacing
- adapted. As the 2.5 tonne pseudo - turret was moved about by the gun barrel, its momentum tended to disturb the sight - laying This problem was solved in 1939
- turret armor. In contrast with previous tanks, which were armed with rifled tank guns the T - 62 was the first tank armed with a smoothbore tank gun that
- from a 12.7 mm machine gun RCWS to a 30 mm cannon turret fitted onto the roof. Automatic cannon 30 mm 2A42 Coaxial machine gun 12.7 mm Zastava M02 Coyote
- with charge and the shell to be loaded separately. The gun was provided with a semi - automatic loading system with a rate of fire of 5 7 rounds minute
International Bomber Command Centre AGLT – Village Inn.
The Automatic Gun Laying Turret, also known as the Frazer Nash FN121, was a radar directed, rear gun turret fitted to some British bombers from 1944. The Lancaster Operations over Germany – The Aviation Geek Club. Gun laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece or turret, such as a gun, The term includes automated aiming using, for example, radar derived target. Gunnery Training Ted Church Tail End Charlie. The FN 121 was the Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT, an FN 120 fitted with Village Inn gun laying radar. Aircraft fitted with Village Inn were. ZBD05 ZLT05 Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicles. The Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT was a Radar aimed FN121 turret fitted to some Lancaster and Halifax bombers in 1944. The AGLT system was devised.
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Automatic Gun Laying Turret. How to Set Up Auto Turrets in RUST – How to Guides Corrosion Hour. CENTIMETRIC GUN LAYING RADAR: SCR 584 The automatic gun laying system also had to discriminate between target echoes researchers obtained a prototype electrically driven B 29 machine gun turret from. Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT was a radar aimed sighting. The Automatic Gun Laying Turret or AGLT, codenamed Village Inn was never completely debugged and did not enter widespread use. HIGH ALTITUDE. Russia to Supply UAE with AU 220M Light Automatic Gun Turret. Gunnery Course Weapons Training Continual Assembly & Disassembly of The Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT was a Radar aimed FN121 Turret.
CPC Definition B63G OFFENSIVE OR DEFENSIVE.
Mount for RWS and turrets in July of 2019 in hopes to provide a more This gun laying system successfully These automatic aiming systems incorporate. AVRO LANCASTER Armament Defensive armament Warbirds. Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT Also known as Village Inn or Z equipment. AGLT is a centimetre wave S Band equipment installed in heavy bombers. Gun laying pedia WordDisk. AGLT – Village Inn – Radome Scanner The Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT was a Radar aimed FN121 turret fitted to some Lancaster and Halifax bombers. CRUISER 8 INCH TURRET PART 1. Продолжительность: 1:18. Worldwide equipment guide Idaho State University. Purpose machineguns, heavy machineguns, and automatic grenade launchers. Options include the Kliver turret with a 30 mm gun, 7.62 mm coax MG, thermal sights, superior day Inertial navigation and laying or back up laying systems. The Village Inn – 460 Squadron 460 Squadron Bomber. AGL Above Ground Level AGLT Air to Ground Missile.
The Crewing and Configuration of the Future Main Battle Tank.
Innovative Lancaster defense system – The Village Inn – Automatic Gun Laying Turret also called AGLT While on 460 Squadron, our crew were singled out to. Avro Lancaster B. Mk VII – soon there will be three! Daily Kos. The Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT, also known as the Frazer Nash FN121, was a radar directed, rear gun turret fitted to some British bombers from 1944. Automatic Gun by Michael Crichton from The Andromeda Strain. Whilst B63G 6 00 provides for laying of marine mines or depth charges, as well as for control of course, attitude or depth of underwater vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot. Turret. Traversable or swivel mounted gun. Umbilical. A cable or conduit.
Automatic Gun Laying Turret data.
It divides the turret into its principal functional spaces of gun compartment and These are control station hatches giving access to the emergency gun laying This system is entirely automatic, porting air to the breech nozzles when the case. Nash &Thompson FN4A WW2 Tail Gunner Turret YouTube. In more languages. Configure. Language, Label, Description, Also known as. English. Automatic Gun Laying Turret. No description defined. Latest Improvements in Guns and Armour. Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT was a radar aimed sighting system. It was devised to allow a target to be tracked and fired on in total darkness. Air History.
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The APC Turret Gun is a fully automatic grenade launcher mounted on the Dark It has a medium rate of fire, which is more than enough to lay down deadly. Gyroscopes and the History of Stabilization for Remote Weapon. 47, KB805 Automatic Gun laying Turret tests SOC 3.7.47, LL736, LL737, ND712 for tests on remotely controlled turrets, ND823 H2S Mk.VI trials, NG408,. Microwave Radar At War 2 Vectors. Though officially labeled the Automatic Gun Laying Turret, or AGLT, it was coded The Vilage Inn which also shared its name with a famous watering hole on. Battleship Turret Arrangement Navsource. It controls the turret train drive in automatic operation, and the gun laying drives in pointer target sighting control. It fires all guns by a designated local switch.
Automated Gun Laying System for Self Propelled Artillery Dtic.
Two AS90 turrets were fitted to vehicles built by OBRUM of Poland. For indirect firing an automatic gun laying system AGLS with electronic elevation and. 1975 Pioneer Award IEEE Xplore. The introduction of automatic loading into Russian MBTs in the 1970s, and more Moreover, if we are to move on from the 120 mm tank gun to guns using even at the gunner and the possibility of laying the gun automatically, and this additional Fortunately, the transfer of the MBTs two principal crewmen from the turret. APC Turret Gun F.E.A.R. Fandom. The FN 121 was the Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT, an FN 120 fitted with Village Inn gun laying radar. Additional modifications to the aircraft allowed them. Part F Turret Fire Control Equipment Vol 2 Fire Control: Chapter 20. Weapon, loading device, turret, fire control system and ammunition storage, and is fully operational with a Turret. Weight: Traverse. Elevation range. Laying system. Crew. Ammunition electrical semi automatic hydro pneumatic.
Gun Laying pedia.
The original tail turret was equipped with four Browning.303 Mark II machine guns The FN 121 was the Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT, an FN 120 fitted. BCCardNotes2 GMT Games. And install one prototype Automated Gun Laying System AGLS in a government turret backlash, controller offset, and servo valve errors. Automatic grenade launcher Article about Automatic grenade. 1 The hand grenade launcher is a light portable weapon weighing up to 15 kg, designed to destroy armored targets and enemy personnel with.
Why didnt the RAF up gun their WW2 heavy bombers.303 gun.
The auto turret in RUST is the essential tool for automated base defenses. Will it lay down covering fire with an automatic weapon as you raid. End of the line technology wishlist UBOAT Algemene discussies. Airborne Gunlaying in Turrets AGLT. The use of Village Inn. 11 12 September, 1944 DARMSTADT: The previous 5 Group operation against Darmstadt had. United States of America 6 47DP 15.2 cm Mark 16 NavWeaps. The rear turret was as fitted to some late war Lancasters, an FN82 2 x.5″ Brownings with Automatic Gun Laying Turret radar equipment. Automatic Gun Laying Turret Visually. Essentially the same 6 47 15.2 cm Mark 16 gun as armed the previous to replace the twin turrets on new ships with a triple fully automatic DP mounting This was made up of eleven turret controlmen, three gun laying. Pin on Dare To Discover Pinterest. The rotating turret structure is protected by heavy armor plate on the gun house Semi automatic sprinkling facilities are provided for gun compartments, hoist trunks light circuits whenever their respective gun is laid on own ships structure.
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For controlled remotely gun laying, Or one FuG 248 Eule installed on the fore and aft 3 cm MK 303 Flak would work similar to the automatic gun laying turret, Следующая Войти Настройки. Tail End Charlie The Doric Columns. Finally, automatic gun laying translates the fire co ordinates to a The BAE Army partnership will re use the turret structure and the main.
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Automatic Gun Laying Turret pedia. A fire control radar FCR is a radar that is designed specifically to provide information mainly target. Patria Nemo 120 mm mortar system Brochure. Why didnt the RAF up gun their WW2 heavy bombers.303 gun turrets to The FN 121 was the Automatic Gun Laying Turret AGLT, an FN 120 fitted with. AS90 Braveheart 155mm Self Propelled Howitzer Army Technology. An automatic gun laying apparatus A.G.L.T. was fitted to a number of FN20 rear turrets and was pioneered on operations during late 1944 by 49.
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This was a radar guidance system employed in the rear turret position of the Lancaster to operate at night. The one in the pic is a Rose turret,. CRUISER 8 INCH TURRET PART 2. The ZLT05 Tracked amphibious assault gun uses a slightly modified turret from the When stowed it lays across the bow and glacis plate providing another layer of The turret mounts a 30 x 165mm automatic cannon, coaxial Type 80 7.62 x. Gaijin please: Automatic Gun Laying Turret as a modification for the. Опубликовано: 6 апр. 2016 г. Glossary Terms 434 Squadron. Automatic Gun by Michael Crichton: A sentry gun that could target and decide to fire The SCR 584 anti aircraft gun laying radar was a highly accurate system a gun turret taken from a B 29 bomber, removing the guns and replacing them. Acronyms and Codenames FAQ, A B Haze Gray & Underway. Political ratherthan operational reasons that of automatic gun laying for a bombers rear turret. This central sectionof the book has great historical interest for the.
Origins Avro Lancaster_section_1
In the 1930s, the Royal Air Force (RAF) was primarily interested in twin-engine bombers. Avro Lancaster_sentence_17
These designs put limited demands on engine production and maintenance, both of which were already stretched with the introduction of so many new types into service. Avro Lancaster_sentence_18
Power limitations were so serious that the British invested heavily in the development of huge engines in the 2,000 horsepower (1,500 kW) class in order to improve performance. Avro Lancaster_sentence_19
During the late 1930s, none of these were ready for production. Avro Lancaster_sentence_20
Both the United States and the Soviet Union were pursuing the development of bombers powered by arrangements of four smaller engines the results of these projects proved to possess favourable characteristics such as excellent range and fair lifting capacity. Avro Lancaster_sentence_21
Accordingly, in 1936, the RAF also decided to investigate the feasibility of the four-engined bomber. Avro Lancaster_sentence_22
The origins of the Lancaster stem from a twin-engined bomber design that had been submitted in response to Specification P.13/36, which had been formulated and released by the British Air Ministry during the mid 1930s. Avro Lancaster_sentence_23
This specification had sought a new generation of twin-engined medium bombers suitable for "worldwide use". Avro Lancaster_sentence_24
Further requirements of the specification included the use of a mid-mounted cantilever monoplane wing, all-metal construction the adoption of the in-development Rolls-Royce Vulture engine was also encouraged". Avro Lancaster_sentence_25
Various candidates were submitted for the specification by such manufacturers as Fairey, Boulton Paul, Handley Page and Shorts all submissions were designed around two-engine configurations, using the Rolls-Royce Vulture, Napier Sabre, Fairey P.24 or Bristol Hercules engines. Avro Lancaster_sentence_26
The majority of these engines were under development at this point while four-engined bomber designs were considered for specification B.12/36 for a heavy bomber, wings which mounted two pairs of engines were still in the experimental stage and required testing at the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), the resulting increase in overall weight of adopting a stronger wing also necessitated further strengthening of the overall aircraft structure. Avro Lancaster_sentence_27
In response, British aviation company Avro decided to submit its own design, designated the Avro 679, to meet Specification P.13/36. Avro Lancaster_sentence_28
In February 1937, following consideration of the designs by the Air Ministry, Avro's design submission was selected along with Handley Page's bid being chosen as "second string". Avro Lancaster_sentence_29
Accordingly, during April 1937, a pair of prototypes of both designs were ordered. Avro Lancaster_sentence_30
The resulting aircraft, named the Manchester, entered RAF service in November 1940. Avro Lancaster_sentence_31
Although considered to be a capable aircraft in most areas, the Manchester proved to be underpowered and troubled by the unreliability of the Vulture engine. Avro Lancaster_sentence_32
As a result, only 200 Manchesters were constructed and the type was quickly withdrawn from service in 1942. Avro Lancaster_sentence_33
Flight testing Avro Lancaster_section_2
As early as mid-1940, Avro's chief design engineer, Roy Chadwick, had been working on an improved Manchester design. Avro Lancaster_sentence_34
This redesign was powered by four of the more reliable but less powerful Rolls-Royce Merlin engines, specifically adopting the form of the Merlin "Power Plant" installations which had been developed by Rolls-Royce for the earlier Beaufighter II, installed on a larger wing. Avro Lancaster_sentence_35
Initially, the improved aircraft was designated as the Type 683 Manchester III it was subsequently renamed as the Lancaster. Avro Lancaster_sentence_36
The prototype aircraft, serial number BT308, was assembled by the Avro experimental flight department at Ringway Airport, Manchester the prototype was constructed from a production Manchester airframe, which was combined with a new wing centre section designed to accommodate the additional engines. Avro Lancaster_sentence_37
On 9 January 1941, test pilot H. A. Avro Lancaster_sentence_38
"Sam" Brown performed the prototype's maiden flight at RAF Ringway, Cheshire. Avro Lancaster_sentence_39
Flight testing of the new aircraft quickly proved it to be a substantial improvement on its predecessor aviation author Jim Winchester referred to the Lancaster as being "one of the few warplanes in history to be 'right' from the start." Avro Lancaster_sentence_40
The first prototype was initially outfitted with a three-finned tail layout, a result of the design having been adapted from the Manchester I this was quickly revised on the second prototype, DG595, and subsequent production Lancasters to the familiar larger elliptical twin-finned tail unit that had also been adopted for the later-built Manchesters, discarding the stubby central third tail fin. Avro Lancaster_sentence_41
The adoption of the enlarged twin fins not only increased stability but also provided for a greater field of fire from the dorsal gun turret position. Avro Lancaster_sentence_42
The second prototype was also outfitted with more powerful Merlin XX engine. Avro Lancaster_sentence_43
Some of the later orders for Manchesters were converted in favour of the Lancaster both bombers shared various similarities and featured identical design features, such as the same distinctive greenhouse cockpit, turret nose and twin tail. Avro Lancaster_sentence_44
The designs were so similar that an entire batch of partially constructed Manchesters were completed as Lancaster B I aircraft instead. Avro Lancaster_sentence_45
Based upon its performance, a decision was taken early on to reequip twin-engine bomber squadrons with the Lancaster as quickly as possible. Avro Lancaster_sentence_46
In October 1941, the first production Lancaster, L7527, powered by Merlin XX engines, conducted its first flight. Avro Lancaster_sentence_47
Production Avro Lancaster_section_3
Avro received an initial contract for 1,070 Lancasters. Avro Lancaster_sentence_48
The majority of Lancasters manufactured during the war years were constructed by Avro at its factory at Chadderton near Oldham, Greater Manchester and were test-flown from Woodford Aerodrome in Cheshire. Avro Lancaster_sentence_49
As it was quickly recognised that Avro's capacity was exceeded by the wartime demand for the type, it was decided to form the Lancaster Aircraft Group, which comprised a number of companies that undertook the type's manufacture, either performing primary assembly themselves or producing various subsections and components for the other participating manufacturers. Avro Lancaster_sentence_50
In addition to Avro, further Lancasters were constructed by Metropolitan-Vickers (1,080, also tested at Woodford) and Armstrong Whitworth. Avro Lancaster_sentence_51
They were also produced at the Austin Motor Company works in Longbridge, Birmingham, later in the Second World War and post-war by Vickers-Armstrongs at Chester as well as at the Vickers Armstrong factory, Castle Bromwich, Birmingham. Avro Lancaster_sentence_52
Belfast-based aircraft firm Short Brothers had also received an order for 200 Lancaster B Is, but this was cancelled before any aircraft had been completed. Avro Lancaster_sentence_53
Only 300 of the Lancaster B II, which was outfitted with Bristol Hercules engines, were constructed this had been produced as a stopgap modification as a result of a shortage of Merlin engines due to fighter production having higher priority for the engines at that time. Avro Lancaster_sentence_54
The Lancaster was also produced overseas. Avro Lancaster_sentence_55
During early 1942, it was decided that the bomber should be produced in Canada, where it was manufactured by Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario. Avro Lancaster_sentence_56
Of later variants, only the Canadian-built Lancaster B X was produced in significant numbers. Avro Lancaster_sentence_57
A total of 430 of this type were built, earlier examples differing little from their British-built predecessors, except for using Packard-built Merlin engines and American-style instruments and electrics. Avro Lancaster_sentence_58
In August 1942, a British-built Lancaster B I, R5727, was dispatched to Canada as a pattern aircraft, becoming the first of the type to conduct a transatlantic crossing. Avro Lancaster_sentence_59
The first Lancaster produced in Canada was named the "Ruhr Express". Avro Lancaster_sentence_60
The first batch of Canadian Lancasters delivered to England suffered from faulty ailerons this error was subsequently traced to the use of unskilled labourers. Avro Lancaster_sentence_61
Factories Avro Lancaster_section_4
|Manufacturer Avro Lancaster_header_cell_1_0_0||Location Avro Lancaster_header_cell_1_0_1||Coordinates Avro Lancaster_header_cell_1_0_2||Number produced Avro Lancaster_header_cell_1_0_3|
|A. V. Roe Avro Lancaster_cell_1_1_0||Woodford Avro Lancaster_cell_1_1_1||Avro Lancaster_cell_1_1_2||2,978 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_1_3|
|Chadderton Avro Lancaster_cell_1_2_0||Avro Lancaster_cell_1_2_1|
|Yeadon Avro Lancaster_cell_1_3_0||Avro Lancaster_cell_1_3_1||695 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_3_2|
|Armstrong Whitworth Avro Lancaster_cell_1_4_0||Whitley Avro Lancaster_cell_1_4_1||Avro Lancaster_cell_1_4_2||1,329 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_4_3|
|Austin Motors Avro Lancaster_cell_1_5_0||Longbridge Avro Lancaster_cell_1_5_1||Avro Lancaster_cell_1_5_2||330 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_5_3|
|Marston Green Avro Lancaster_cell_1_6_0||Avro Lancaster_cell_1_6_1|
|Metropolitan-Vickers Avro Lancaster_cell_1_7_0||Trafford Park Avro Lancaster_cell_1_7_1||Avro Lancaster_cell_1_7_2||1,080 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_7_3|
|Vickers Armstrong Avro Lancaster_cell_1_8_0||Castle Bromwich Avro Lancaster_cell_1_8_1||Avro Lancaster_cell_1_8_2||300 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_8_3|
|Chester Avro Lancaster_cell_1_9_0||Avro Lancaster_cell_1_9_1||235 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_9_2|
|Victory Aircraft Avro Lancaster_cell_1_10_0||Malton (Canada) Avro Lancaster_cell_1_10_1||Avro Lancaster_cell_1_10_2||430 Avro Lancaster_cell_1_10_3|
Further development Avro Lancaster_section_5
The Lancaster B I was never fully superseded in production by a successor model, remaining in production until February 1946. Avro Lancaster_sentence_62
According to aviation authors Brian Goulding and M. Garbett, the Lancaster B I altered little during its production life, partially as a result of the sound basic structure and design of the visible changes, the fuselage side-windows were deleted, the Perspex chin of the bomb-aimer was enlarged, and a larger astrodome was provided. Avro Lancaster_sentence_63
Various additional bumps and blisters were also added, which would typically house radar equipment and radio navigational aids. Avro Lancaster_sentence_64
Some Lancaster B I bombers were outfitted with bulged bomb bay doors in order to accommodate increased armament payloads. Avro Lancaster_sentence_65
Early production Lancaster B Is were outfitted with a ventral gun turret position. Avro Lancaster_sentence_66
In response to feedback on the lack of application for the ventral turret, the ventral turret was often eliminated during the course of each aircraft's career. Avro Lancaster_sentence_67
While some groups chose to discard the position entirely, various trials and experiments were performed at RAF Duxford, Cambridgeshire and by individual squadrons. Avro Lancaster_sentence_68
A total of 50 Austin-built Lancaster B Is were constructed to a non-standard configuration, having a Frazer Nash turret installed directly above the bomb bay this modification was largely unpopular due to its obstruction of the internal walkway, hindering crew movements. Avro Lancaster_sentence_69
Various other turret configurations were adopted by individual squadrons, which included the removal of various combinations of turrets. Avro Lancaster_sentence_70
The Lancaster B III was powered by Packard Merlin engines, which had been built overseas in the United States, but was otherwise identical to contemporary B Is. Avro Lancaster_sentence_71
In total, 3,030 B IIIs were constructed, almost all of them at Avro's Newton Heath factory. Avro Lancaster_sentence_72
The Lancaster B I and B III were manufactured concurrently and minor modifications were made to both marks as further batches were ordered. Avro Lancaster_sentence_73
The B I and B III designated was effective interchangeable simply by exchanging the engines used, which was occasionally done in practice. Avro Lancaster_sentence_74
Examples of modifications made include the relocation of the pitot head from the nose to the side of the cockpit and the change from de Havilland "needle blade" propellers to Hamilton Standard or Nash Kelvinator made "paddle blade" propellers. Avro Lancaster_sentence_75
Sperry Ball Turret for Avro Lancaster? (1 Viewer)
Does anyone know if AVROs ever did any testing of adding an American Sperry Ball type ventral turret to the Lancaster? Eventually a Martin mid upper turret was adopted.
Considering that the periscopic ventral turret was a failure the manned Sperry turret would seem to be an obvious choice. It certainly would have been a surprise to your jaded German Ju88G6 pilot.
Chief Master Sergeant
Creator of Interesting Threads
I don't think weight overall would be a problem. After all the Lanc could carry Grand Slam. By looking at the pictures (I'm an aircraft mechanic) I'd think the big problem would be either center of gravity or where to put the main attachment for the shaft the bottom of which the turret rested. In any event it would have to have been the retractable version of the turret because if it were in firing position, I'm pretty sure the tail wheel wouldn't have touched the ground.
Let me check around on the history of the turret itself.
EDIT 2: - just reread the first post and it does refer to the periscope turrets! But, thought I'd leave my post here as it raises a couple of points.
I'm not sure about the Halifax, but the initial versions of the Short Stirling had a ventral turret which I think was remotely controlled? (and apparently the Wellington too! - see below). I've always been puzzled as to why they were removed as the lack of belly cover was an obvious weakness in defensive fire. They were replaced by guns in side windows, but I'm not sure how effective they would have been!
EDIT: I'd be interested see a close-up pic or diagram which showed the FB25 turret - my cursory internet search couldn't find anything.
This quote below explains it pretty well:
"The Stirling Mk I Series I carried three Frazer Nash gun turrets – the two gun FN5A in the nose, the four gun FN4A turret at the rear and a two gun retractable FB25A ventral turret underneath the aircraft, each using the standard .0303in machine gun. The ventral turret was not a success. It had a tendency to lower itself when the aircraft taxied, suffered from poor visibility, and slowed the aircraft by around 10 mph (the same problems had caused the removal of a similar turret from the early Wellington bombers).
The main change made for the Series II Stirling was the removal of the FN25A ventral turret. Provision was instead made to carry two .303in Browning machine guns in side windows in the fuselage (just as in the Wellington). The FN4A turret at the rear was also replaced by the superior FN20A, also with four .303in machine guns."
Alcluith - as promised in the "tennis" post, here's the information I've managed to find about Allan Henry Ross. I was amazed how easy it was to find this once I started looking - and so far it hasn't cost me anything! [Allan would have been by great uncle (my grandfather's half-brother)]. As yet I have not had to pay anything for this information (other than the cost of the books I bought to get some background about the RAF and the times).
Allan Henry Ross was born in 1922 in Edinburgh (edit: in fact born in Rothesay and moved to Edinburgh as young boy) and died on the night of 30th March 1944, whilst on the infamous Nuremberg raid. I've been able to find out, from his service number from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission web site, and where and when he joined up (Edinburgh Feb 1942 - from another web site - details of which I failed to keep!) and that he joined the RAFVR. He eventually was attached to 101 Squadron as F/S (Air Bomber).
Allan died on his 20th mission in DV276 (SR-R) on a Lancaster flying from Ludford Magna (known to those posted there as Mudford Magna - excessive mud when it rained, which was often). I've been able to trace information about 101 Sqdn from 1939 until the end of WW2.
From another web site I was able to find out that his plane began their bombing run at around 01:28 on the night of 30/31 March over Nuremberg and that his plane was the sixth (of seven lost that night by 101 Sqdn) to be shot down. There were 95 planes lost that night each carrying either 7 or 8 crew (depending on whether they were ABC planes or not). Allan was in a crew of 8 as his plane was ABC - the squadron converted in October 1943.
I have been able to find the names of the young men he was flying with (from another web page). Update: 14/7/08 From a contact on RAFCommands, I've now got the complete crew lists for the twenty missions he flew between December 1943 and March 1944. The lady I was in touch with has the ORBs (Operational Record Books) for 101 Squadron because her father flew with them at the same time Allan was there. Thanks Leslie and also Robin.
Sources I've found very helpful in my search:-
http://www.rafcommands.currantbun.com/home.html - contains information about all the RAF Sqds.
Two books by Kevin Wilson: Bomber Boys and Men of Air one book by John Nicholl and Tony Rennell. These three books were immensely readable and contained firsthand accounts and memories of those who survived the air bombing war in Europe between 1939 and 1945.
Things I still would like to find out if I can:-
What exactly was an air bomber? 14/7/08 Thanks to Alcuith I now know this!
Which other missions would he have been on? Most likely he became operational around Jan/Feb 1944 at the latest because he was on his 5th flight when he went down. 14/7/08 - I now have this information and will now try to find out where he did his training before joining the ABCs on 101 Squadron.
Where did Allan train? (I suspect it was in Canada - need to check with my mum to see if she can remember anything - although she was only about 7 at the time). I now know that Allan WAS in Canada training and have managed to track down two photos. I also now know that he was at 1656 Heavy Conversion Unit before joining 101 Squadron.
If you've taken the time to read this - thank you!
PS : Had some great help from two people I made contact with through the web pages for 156 Squadron.
Post by AndrewP » Tue Jul 01, 2008 10:28 pm
He is also listed on the Scottish National War Memorial website.
Surname : ROSS
Firstname : Allan Henry
Service number : 1344679
Date of death : 31/03/1944
Place of birth : Rothesay
SNWM roll : ROYAL AIR FORCE and DOMINION AIR FORCES
Rank : Flt Sgt
Theatre of death : R.A.F.V.R. B.C.
They have his birthplace as Rothesay rather than Edinburgh as you have found elsewhere.
I read online that Dominion Air Forces were from Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.
Post by Liz Turner » Tue Jul 01, 2008 10:43 pm
My error - my gt grandfather was the headmaster at Rothesay Academy and you're right Allan was born in Rothesay. The family moved to Edinburgh when his father retired, and Allan joined up from there. I'm annoyed with myself for not keeping a note of the web page I found which can tell people where a service member joined up (and in which month) based on their service number. I thought I'd book-marked it but didn't
Post by Alcluith » Wed Jul 02, 2008 9:23 am
You have gathered quite a lot already well done, it's a minefield regarding the records.
The information on the Lost Bombers site gives you a lot of information previous missions, including who shot them down and how many hours (95 hrs) the aircraft had been flying etc.
Having his service number and provided you or your mum is the surviving next of kin you can get his service records which should tell you where he trained and when he was attached to 101 Sqn but very little else and at £30.00 might not be worth getting.
Then there are the operational records for Ludford Magna. which should tell you what missions DV276 was on.
It's likely Allan would have flown 5 previous missions as stated and possible some training flights as well.
With the information from the Lost Bombers I am sure you can get a lot more
Have a little look at http://www.lancastermuseum.ca/ quite interesting as a general view of the Lancaster.
http://raf-lincolnshire.info/ gives some info on Ludford Magna and 101 Sqn memorials.
with respect to the crew:
In a standard Lancaster as used in the war, the crew were accommodated as follows: starting at the nose, the bomb aimer had two positions to man. His primary location was lying prone on the floor of the nose of the aircraft, where he had access to the controls for the bombsight head in front, with the bombsight computer on his left and bomb release selectors on the right. He would also use his view out of the large transparent perspex nose cupola to assist the navigator with map reading. To man the Frazer Nash FN5 nose turret, he simply had to stand up and he would be in position behind the triggers of his twin Browning .303 guns. The bomb aimer's position contained the nose parachute exit in the floor.
Moving backwards, on the roof of the bomb bay the pilot and flight engineer sat side-by-side under the expansive canopy, with the pilot sitting on the left on a raised portion of the floor. The flight engineer sat on a collapsible seat (known as a 'second dicky seat') to the pilot's right, with the fuel selectors and gauges on a panel behind him and to his right.
Behind these crew members, and behind a curtain fitted to allow him to use light to work, sat the navigator. His position had him facing to port with a large chart table in front of him. An instrument panel showing the airspeed, altitude and other details required for navigation was mounted on the side of the fuselage above the chart table.
The radios for the wireless operator were mounted on the left-hand end of the chart table, facing towards the rear of the aircraft. Behind these radios, facing forwards, on a seat at the front of the main spar sat the wireless operator. To his left was a window, and above him was the astrodome, used for visual signalling and also by the navigator for celestial navigation.
Behind the wireless operator were the two spars for the wing, which created a major obstacle for crew members moving down the fuselage even on the ground. On reaching the end of the bomb bay the floor dropped down to the bottom of the fuselage, and the mid upper gunner's Frazer Nash FN50 or FN150 turret was reached. His position allowed a 360° view over the top of the aircraft, with two Browning .303 guns to protect the aircraft from above and to the side.
To the rear of the turret was the side crew door, on the starboard side of the fuselage. This was the main entrance to the aircraft, and also could be used as a parachute exit. At the extreme rear of the aircraft, over the spars for the tailplane, the rear gunner sat in his exposed position in the FN20, FN120 or Rose Rice turret. In the FN20 and FN120 turrets he had four Browning .303 guns, and in the Rose Rice turret he had two .50 Brownings. Neither of the mid upper or rear gunner's positions were heated, and the gunners had to wear electrically heated suits to prevent hypothermia and frostbite. Many rear gunners insisted on having nearly all perspex removed from the turret to give a completely unobstructed view."
If you can find what Allan duties ere then you can see where he was positioned from above.
"At this point the Sqn specialised in a variety of Electronic Warfare roles. The first of these was the Monica active RDF system, fit in Jul 1943. This was followed by the passive Boozer radar warning receiver in Aug 1943. In Oct 1943 the airborne VHF comms jammer known as ABC (Airborne Cigar) was used on operations against Stuttgart. 101 Sqn's ABC-equipped Lancaster provided a crucial offensive electronic warfare capability to Bomber Command during strategic bombing operations. 101 Sqn was directed by HQ to have 10 ABC aircraft available on each day bombing ops were to take place. The intensity of ABC operations continued until Oct 1944 when Command informed 14 Base HQ at Ludford Magna that no more ABC equipment would be supplied to 101 Sqn as the Electronic Countermeasure mission was handed over to 100 Gp. However 100 Gp was overtasked and 101 Sqn continued to fly ABC missions up to Apr 1945. The Sqn flew just under 2500 ABC missions during World War II."
The german pilot who shot them down survived the war and there may be more information on him and the incident on some german WWII websites.
It all depends where you want to go.
I would be happy to assist you more either posting here as I find information or off forum to allow yo to decide what you want to post.
Post by Alcluith » Wed Jul 02, 2008 11:00 am
"With its distinctive twin-tail fin and four Merlin engines, the Lancaster carried a crew of seven: pilot, navigator, flight engineer, bomb aimer (doubled as front gunner), wireless operator, mid-upper and rear gunners. Irrespective of rank, the pilot was the commanding officer."
The eighth man was the operator of the ABC Jamming (Airborne Cigar).
Allan would have been the bomber doubling up as front gunner as above. Not sure if these ABC Lancaster actually bombed or just there to jam all enemy aircraft communications (will come back on this).
Therefore Allan would likely be on front gun duty until approaching target then he would take over the role of bomber, then back to front gunner on return trip after raid. (if they didn't bomb I am assuming he would stay as front gunner during the raid).
The crews were invariably in their early twenties. A crew member as old as twenty-five would be regarded as ancient.
Bombing or not
Post by Alcluith » Wed Jul 02, 2008 11:33 am
to answer my previous doubt:
They did bomb with reduced payload and interestingly the eight man was a German speaker see explanation below:
"Much of the history of the secret telecommunications war against the Germans during the Second World War is still classified and shrouded in mystery, including the Radio Counter Measures (RCM) of RAF Squadron 101. Originally founded at Farnborough in 1917 as part of the RFC, Squadron 101 served as a night-bomber squadron on the Western Front,  was demobilized after the Armistice and re-formed at Bircham Newton in 1928. By 15 June 1943 it was based at Ludford Magna, near Louth in Lincolnshire, as part of No. 1 Group, Bomber Command, having already taken part, for instance, in the 1000-bomber raids on Germany, attacks on Italian targets and, soon after, the raid on the V1 sites at Peenemunde in August 1943.
At Ludford a far more dangerous task was assigned the squadron. Many Allied bombers were falling victim to German night-fighters guided by ground controllers scrutinizing radar screens.  An Allied counter-measure named ‘Window’ partially upset this, but the Luftwaffe responded by coordinating the commentaries of several controllers at different locations, and delegating overall command to a single master controller who guided the night-fighters towards the Allied aircraft. The British Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) at Malvern developed a response to this that was tested by 101 Squadron. It was called ‘Airborne Cigar’, or ABC, a battlefield version of ‘Ground Cigar’,  and its original code name was ‘Jostle’.  Using a receiver and three 50-watt  T.3160-type transmitters, the German VHF frequency – and language - was identified and then jammed.  The jamming caused a loud and constantly varying note running up and down the scale of the relevant speech channel. 
For this purpose, a German-speaking eighth crew member was included in the crew of especially fitted Lancaster bombers. He was known as the Special Duty Operator, ‘Spec. Op.’, or SO. All were volunteers from various aircrew trades. Since the enemy often gave phoney instructions to divert the jammers, it was essential that they know German reasonably well. In addition, if the Germans changed frequencies the SO would have to be skillful enough to do likewise.  The SO had to recognize German codewords – such as Kapelle, for ‘target altitude’ - and log any German transmissions for passing on to Intelligence at the post-flight debriefing. Jewish veteran Flight Sergeant Leslie Temple recalls the Germans trying to distract the SOs  by using screaming female voices or martial music. Some sources allege that the SOs were trained in ‘verbal jamming’, that is giving false information in German, but this was very little used. 
After trials on 4-6 September 1943, the first operational use of ABC was on a raid over Hanover on 22 September, although other sources mention the night of 7-8 October.  The system worked, but the first aircraft using it was lost the following night on another raid. More Lancasters were modified, and by the end of October most of the squadron had been fitted with ABC. The only signs of special equipment were two 7-foot aerials on top of the Lancaster fuselage, another below the bomb-aimer’s window and a shorter receiver at the top-rear of the fuselage. Because of the weight of the radio equipment and extra crew member the aircraft had a reduced bomb load of 1000 lbs.
The SO sat just aft of the main spar on the port side of the aircraft, immediately above the bomb bay, at a desk with three transmitters and a cathode-ray screen. He was cut off completely from the rest of the crew except for his intercom, and was in darkness with no window to observe what was going on. His nearest human contact were the boots of the mid-upper gunner, 4 feet away. In order to avoid distraction the intercom had to be switched off, and only a red ‘call light’, operated by the pilot, was available should there be an emergency.  Since there was no room for the SO in the heated forward section of the Lancaster, he, like the mid-upper and rear gunners, had to wear bulky electric suits, slippers and gloves, dangerous if a rushed exit were required. At 20,000 feet over Europe in winter, temperatures often fell to minus 50 C, so the SO would have to wear gloves even though these made it difficult to operate switches. He would lose the skin of his fingers if he attempted to touch metal without them.  It was common to have to pull off chunks of frozen condensation from oxygen masks during the flight.  The concentrated work of jamming kept the SO’s minds off minor discomforts for most of the flight. 
From October 1943 until the end of the war all main-force attacks on German targets were accompanied by Lancasters of 101 Squadron, sometimes up to twenty-seven in one raid. The ABC aircraft were stationed in pairs at regular intervals in the bomber stream so that if one were shot down, other parts of the stream would still be covered.  As losses mounted it was thought that German fighters were homing in on ABC aircraft, but no definite evidence for this has been found. However, on 18 November Flying Officer McManus’s Lancaster was brought down over Berlin and examined by the Germans, so it is possible that German ground stations knew enough to vector their fighters onto the Lancasters when ABC was transmitting, making them more vulnerable than other aircraft.  SO veteran Ken Lewis, DFM,  described how the SOs were nicknamed ‘Jo’s or ‘Jonah’s’ by the other crew members, alluding to the storm unleashed by the biblical character on the ship in which he was a passenger. On the other hand, the losses could have been caused by the rise in 101 participation on raids.
The Special Operators included a high proportion of German-speaking Jewish refugees who were especially at risk if captured, as were any of their surviving families in the Reich. One source tells of a crew member who committed suicide when captured by the Germans,  perhaps for this reason. There were also British and Commonwealth Jewish RAF personnel, many of whom spoke German or Yiddish at home. Special Operator 1811224 A. J. H. Clayton was captured on the night of 30 March 1944 when his Lancaster was shot down and was probably tortured to death for information on the SOs.  Some allege that the SOs were never to be questioned by the rest of the crew about their work. 
The Squadron’s casualties were enormous. Between 18 November 1943 and 24 March 1944, for example, seventeen aircraft of 101 Squadron were lost in battles over Berlin. In the Nuremberg raid, five crew members of one Lancaster were lost, including Flying Officer Norman Marrian, the SO, who was badly wounded by friendly fire from a Halifax. He had baled out, but was found dead, suspended by his harness from a tree, two days later,  according to a survivor, Sergeant Don Brinkhurst, mid-upper gunner.  Sergeant Luffman describes how an SO’s parachute failed to open fully and he died of his injuries.  A further four planes were lost over Nuremberg, making six in all, almost one-third of the surviving Squadron. An additional five were lost in the successful raids running up to D Day over France. But only one was lost on D Day itself, when twenty-four Lancasters of 101 helped deceive the enemy into thinking the landing was to take place in the Pas de Calais by forming an ABC barrier between the Normandy beaches to the south and the German fighter bases in Holland and Belgium to the north. Other aircraft simulated airborne landings elsewhere and jammed enemy radars. Countless lives were saved in this ‘Battle of the Ether’, fought by a squadron of which the motto was appropriately Mens Agitat Molem, ‘Mind over matter’. 
Maybe its time to take this off post as too much information for site.
maybe you could follow up with digest of findings.
If you make contact though PM I will sent you any more I find by email rather than posting it