1 January 1944

1 January 1944

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1 January 1944

January 1944


Western Front

Rommel takes up command of Army Group B


General Mark Clark takes command of the US 7th Army while retaining command of the 5th Army

1 January 1944 - History

Jan 1 DNA, the nucleic acid that contains genetic instructions involved in the development and functioning of all known living organisms, is discovered by Oswald Avery (1877-1955), a Canadian born medical researcher, working in New York City.

Jan 18 The Soviet Army is driving the Germans back from around Leningrad. The siege of Leningrad is lifted. Around 830,000 civilians have died at Leningrad since the siege began in late 1941.

Jan 20 US Secretary of War Henry Stimson announces that Japanese-Americans are eligible for the draft.

Jan 22 British and US forces, totaling 36,000 soldiers and 3,200 vehicles, land on the beaches around Anzio &ndash about 60 kilometers south of Rome. They meet little resistance. Thirteen of the invading force are killed and 97 wounded. They take 200 German prisoners.

Jan 26 After several days of fighting in the mountains of Papua New Guinea, the Australians have won a major battle, sending the Japanese in retreat.

Feb 3 The Germans have sent troops against the Allies around Anzio. Hard fighting there begins.

Feb 14 On the island of Java some Indonesians revolt against Japanese rule.

Feb 26 In a six-week campaign moving in the direction of Estonia, the Red Army has destroyed three German divisions, routed 17 other German divisions, captured 189 tanks and 1800 artillery pieces, and guerrilla forces have killed more than 21,500 Germans soldiers and derailed 136 military trains.

Mar 1 Amin Al-Husseini, in one of his many broadcasts from Berlin, heard in much of the Arab world, tells Muslim SS soldiers: "Kill the Jews wherever you find them. This pleases God, History and Religion. This saves your honor. God is with you."

Mar 12 Britain prohibits travel to Ireland following accusations that Ireland, a proclaimed neutral in the war, is collaborating with Germany.

Mar 19 Hitler sends troops into Hungary to defend his Eastern Front against the Red Army.

Mar 22 Japan is not succeeding well in defending territory that it already holds, but it tries to extend its power farther in Asia. It sends an army on a march from Burma to a new objective: Delhi, India.

Mar 24 Roosevelt warns Hungary to refrain from anti-Jewish measures.

Mar 27 In Kaunas, Lithuania's second largest city, about 1,800 people in a Jewish ghetto, mostly elderly and children, have been dragged from their homes and murdered. Also killed are 40 officers of the Jewish police for having given aid to the Jewish underground in the ghetto. Less than 18,000 persons remain in the ghetto.

Apr 2 Field Marshall Erich von Manstein has been advocating tactical withdrawals to shorter and more defensible lines while Hitler has been insisting on "standing fast." Hitler replaces Manstein with a more compliant commander.

Apr 14 The first Jews from Athens, numbering about 5,200, arrive at Auschwitz.

Apr 16 Hungary's government begins registering Jews and confiscating their property.

May 6 Gandhi's health has been deteriorating. The British release him from prison.

May 16 The first of 180,000 Hungarian Jews arrive at Auschwitz.

May 18 Stalin has accused Tatars of having collaborated with the Germans. He begins to expel more than 200,000 of them from the Crimea.

May 19 The Germans transport 245 "gypsies" from the city of Westerbork, in the Netherlands, to Auschwitz.

May 31 The Japanese have made it no deeper into India than 70 kilometers &ndash in Nagaland. They are without supplies and starving. Their commander begins to retreat without permission from a superior commander to his rear, who has ordered him to hold his position.

Jun 6 D-Day. From England 50,000 British, Canadian and US troops land on the beaches of Normandy. The hardest going is at "Omaha Beach," where about 1000 are killed, mostly in earlier hours. It is the largest amphibious landing ever. Allied bombing has helped by limiting supplies to the Germans.

Jun 7 Pesident Roosevelt tells Polish exile leader Stanislaw Mikolajczyk: "Stalin doesn't intend to take freedom from Poland. He wouldn't dare do that because he knows that the Unied States govenment stands solidly behind you." (Anne Applebaum, Iron Curtain, p21)

Jun 12 Approximately 40,000 Polish children, ages ten to fourteen, are being taken from concentration camps to Germany for slave labor.

Jun 13 From France, Germany begins to send V1 rockets to London, daily. An average of 75 people per day will be killed during these attacks.

Jun 15 US Marines make it ashore at Saipan and suffer 2,000 casualties. The fight for Saipan begins &ndash about 20,000 US forces against 30,000 Japanese troops.

Jun 18 The Japanese are on the offensive in central China, eager to push back US airforce bases. They overrun Changsha.

Jun 22 The Soviet Union begins a summer offensive, "Operation Bagration," at the middle of its line, opposite 34 German divisions. The Russian offensive has 200 divisions, 2.3 million soldiers, almost 6,000 tanks and massed artillery.

Jun 29 The Allies are well established on the ground in Normandy. Hitler fires Field Marshal Rommel and Field Marshal von Rundstedt for suggesting that Germany should sue for peace.

Jul 7 The Soviet army is approaching, and Hungary's ruler, Admiral Horthy, halts the deportation of Jews.

Jul 20 An attempt by German Army officers to assassinate Hitler fails.

Jul 22 Representatives from the 44 Allied nations sign an agreement at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. The agreement creates the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. It creates what will be the "pegged rate" currency system for international monetary exchanges. The dollar is to be the reserve currency, capable of conversion to gold.

Jul 22 Japan's government cannot hide the loss of Saipan. Public sentiment and the outrage of fervent patriots force Prime Minister Tojo to resign.

Jul 23 The Red Army liberates inmates of the Majdanek concentration camp in Poland, near Lublin.

Jul 24 US forces land at Tinian, 5 kilometers southwest of Saipan. Napalm is used for the first time. Tinian is suitable for a bomber airbase within range of Japan.

Aug 1 The Red Army is about 50 kilometers east of Warsaw and coming to a halt after a 900-kilometer (562-mile) advance since June 22. The Polish government-in-exile in London, with whom Stalin has severed relations, has ordered an uprising in Warsaw, and underground members of their Polish Home Army in Warsaw begin to attack the Germans.

Aug 4 Anne Frank and family are arrested by the Gestapo in Amsterdam.

Aug 8 Eight German army officers are hanged, with piano wire, for their part in the attempted assassination of Hitler on June 20.

Aug 10 US troops have completed their victory over the Japanese on the island of Guam, south of Saipan and Tinian.

Aug 23 King Michael of Romania orders his forces to stop fighting the Allies.

Aug 25 The German in command of Paris, Dietrich von Choltitz, disobeys Hitler's order to destroy the city. He surrenders Paris to de Gualle's Free French.

Aug 28 On the 28th day of the Warsaw uprising, Polish resistance fighters are forced by German air power and artillery fire to take cover in the city's sewers.

Aug 29 Slovak troops, numbering about 60,000, have turned against the pro-German government of Jozef Tiso. Germany occupies Slovakia. The deportation of Jews from Slovakia begins again.

Aug 31 Soviet troops overrun the capital of Romania: Bucharest.

Sep 6 Bulgaria declares war on Germany.

Sep 8 The Red Army enters Bulgaria unopposed. The Bulgarians are friendly in keeping with their history of Russian relations with Bulgarians, especially in 1878 when Bulgarians won freedom from Turkish rule.

Sep 8 Germans can no longer launch their V1 rockets from France. They now have a longer range rocket, the V2, which they launch from the Netherlands. Hitler has hoped that his rockets will turn the war around for Germany.

Sep 9 Finland and the Soviet Union sign a preliminary peace agreement. The borders of 1940 are reestablished. Finland agrees to expel all German troops from its territory, to abolish various rightwing political organizations, to give legal status to its Communist Party, to a restriction of the size of its armed forces and to hold war crimes trials.

Sep 11 US troops cross Germany's western border. The Allies are only 160 kilometers (100 miles) from the German city of Darmstadt. There, Britain's airforce creates another firestorm. The number of German military personnel who die is 936. Prisoners of war who die number 368. Also killed are 492 foreigners doing forced labor. Identifiable German civilians who die number 1,766 men, 2,742 women and 2,129 children. Those who die and are not identifiable will be estimated as roughly 6,000. Nothing is accomplished that would speed the end of the war.

Sep 17 Paratroops and gliders land behind the German line in the Netherlands, in operation "Market Garden," the largest of airborne operations, consisting of US, British and Polish troops. It is hoped that by taking key bridges the Allies will be in Berlin before the end of the year.

Sep 27 Thousands of British troops are killed trying to capture the Arnhem Bridge that crosses the Rhine River in the Netherlands. The Germans hold to a new line in the Netherlands, frustrating operation Market Garden.

Sep 28 Yugoslavia's partisan leader, Josip Broz Tito, agrees to the Soviet army entering Yugoslavia temporarily.

Oct 1 The Soviet army pushes into Yugoslavia.

Oct 2 In Warsaw, the last of the Polish Home Army surrenders to the Germans. The uprising has proven to be poor judgment by the London based Polish government in exile. The uprising has suffered from a lack of cooperation by Stalin, who preferred his own Poles to that of the London government in exile. 150,000 Poles have died and 26,999 Germans. The Germans are evacuating and destroying the city in accordance with Hitler's orders. It will be January before Soviet troops arrive.

Oct 4 British troops land at Crete and in Greece. An anti-fascist partisan army, the ELAM, led by Communists, controls much of Greece's countryside. ELAM soldiers number about 50,000.

Oct 10 Churchill is in Moscow and without a representative of the United States present he makes a secret agreement with Stalin concerning spheres of influence. Stalin stays with his old policy of getting along with the capitalist West rather than pursuing revolution. He cedes interest in Italy to Britain. From Churchill he receives 90 percent interest in Romanian affairs and he gives Britain 90 percent interest in Greece. They split Yugoslavia fifty-fifty.

Oct 14 British troops enter Athens and land on the Island of Corfu. Communist Party leadership in Greece have been advised by Moscow not to precipitate a crisis that would risk Stalin's post-war objectives of cooperation with the Western powers. Greece's Communist Party leadership is ready to accept membership in a liberal coalition government, led by George Papendreou.

Oct 14 Field Marshall Rommel is suspected of complicity with the attempted assassination of June 20. Because of Rommel's popularity with the German people, Hitler gives Rommel the option of committing suicide with cyanide or facing a humiliating trial and the murder of his family and staff. Rommel dies by suicide.

Oct 15-17 In a radio broadcast, Hungary's ruler, Horthy, asks for a non-aggression treaty with the Soviet Union. He is seized by German commandos. The German army occupies Budapest. Count Szalasi becomes prime minister. Adolf Eichmann arrives in Budapest and orders 50,000 able-bodied Jews to be marched to Germany, on foot, to serve as laborers.

Oct 16 The Red Army is at Germany's eastern border in East Prussia.

Oct 18 General Joseph Stillwell has been leading the US effort to help the Chinese fight the Japanese. He has been urging reforms by Chiang. Stillwell has wanted a united front against the Japanese while Chiang has seen the Communists as more of a threat than the Japanese. Chiang dislikes Stillwell. Roosevelt replaces Stillwell.

Oct 19 The Germans evacuate Belgrade.

Oct 20 The Soviet army enters Belgrade.

Oct 25 The Japanese are outgunned in the Pacific and are losing their war, but rather than starting to bargain with the United States, today, during the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the Japanese resort to its first kamikaze ("divine wind") suicide airplane attacks against US ships.

Oct 27 A US submarine sinks a Japanese

Oct 28 In an agreement signed in Moscow by the Soviet Union, Britain and the United States, Bulgaria accepts an armistice, agreeing to sever relations with Germany and to withdrawal from Greece.

Nov 3 The pro-German government of Hungary flees.

Nov 7 Roosevelt has done something Hitler does not have to do. He has stood for election, and he wins a fourth four-year term.

Nov 20 Hitler retreats from his East Prussian headquarters to a bunker below the "Reichskanzlei" in Berlin.

Nov 24 From the Island of Tinian, approximately 100 B29 bombers journey 1550 miles for their first raid on Tokyo. Sixteen bombs hit their target: a factory. The Japanese capture the city of Nanning in south-central China.

Nov 25 In the Philippines the Japanese are resorting to a god-is-on-their-side strategy. They believe Japan was saved by a divine wind (kami-kaze) from a Mongol invasion in 1281. The Japanese believe that they will be saved again. Their pilots launch suicide &ndash kamikaze - attacks against the US Navy in the Philippines, damaging four aircraft carriers, two battleships, two cruisers and two destroyers.

Nov 29 The last German troops are withdrawn from Albania. The Communist leader of Albania's coalition partisan movement, Enver Hoxha, a former school teacher, has taken control of Albania.

Dec 12 In Greece, the Communist dominated partisan army has balked at giving up its weapons, fearing that it would leave them vulnerable to rightist militias. Fighting has erupted. The left takes control of Athens and the nearby port of Piraeus.

Dec 16 Hitler launches an offensive against the US forces in Belgium &ndash called Operation Watch on the Rhine by Germans and Battle of the Bulge by Americans. Hitler hopes it will defeat four Allied armies and result in the US and Britain negotiating a settlement in his favor.

Dec 24 The British have flown in a force from Italy, which has regained control of Athens. Churchill flies into Athens but fails to persuade the ELAS to stop fighting.

Dec 25 The first goal of Operation Watch on the Rhine has been the port city of Antwerp. The German offensive toward Antwerp has been halted more than 100 kilometers short of the city.

Dec 29 A top secret German report describes Allied bombing as having destroyed telephone usage and roads and railways in the Saar region, making impossible the re-routing of supply trains.

Dec 31 The British bomb the Gestapo headquarters in Oslo, Norway. They destroy half of the building, but the results do not add up to a success. There is the usual collateral damage, including a bomb striking a tram filled with people. All but four are killed.

Wheels West Day in Susanville History – January 1, 1944

Walter Flagg’s celebrated B-17 Flying Fortress “Wabbit Twacks” in 1943.

Fortress Flyer Wins Promotion
January 1, 1944

Walter Flagg Jr., of Susanville, who gained international fame because of exploits of his Flying Fortress “Wabbit Twacks.” Last year, has been promoted to the rank of major in the army air corps. The appointment was made December 1, 1943, the day he became 24 years old.

The missions of Flagg include a shuttle raid from England to Africa, then over Regensburg, Germany, where he was only a few miles from Hitler’s mountain retreat at Berchtesgaden. Flagg reported columns of smoke over Regensburg 20,000 feet high after unloading bombs.

Major Flagg is a graduate of the Susanville public schools. His father, Walter B. Flagg, has been a prisoner of Japan since the outbreak of war, when he was taken prisoner at Wake Island. His mother, sister and smaller brother are now residing in Richmond, Calif.

File #650: "Operations Directive No. 41 January 1, 1944.pdf"

Civil Air Patrol", dated 25 J-iay 1943> aJid by authorization from Headquarters Army
Air Forces, for the performance of tovs' target and tracking operations for the
First and Fourth Air Forces in support of antiaircraft gunnery training of the
E a s t e r n a n d We s t e r n D e f e n s e C o m m a n d s #

b. Pursuant to paragraph 4 a of said AAF Regulation No, 20*l8, said service
will function, under the operational control of the First and Fourth Air Forces,
through National Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol, Special instructions pertaining
to the conduct of said operations may be issued direct from said Air Forces to
the CaP tow target commanders concerned#

a« All Cap tow target and tracking operations will be handled throu^ CAP

Tow Target Units located at such points as may be directed National Headquarters,
in collaboration with the First and Fourth Air Forces. Said operating bases may

be relocated from point to point at any time, as circumstances may require.
b. Said operating units will be designated by numbers and not by the names
of the airports on which they are based nor by the names of the states in which
said airports ara-located, (Example:- CaP Tow Target Unit No# 1, Abbreviation
CaP-TTU-1») Designating numbers will be assigned by National Headquarters,
3* Orgeinization

a. In general, CAP Tow Target Units will be organized within the manning
table presented in paragraph 4 hereof, v^hich shoves the maximum authorized strength
per unit. The number of personnel of each category for each such unit v/ill be
determined by National Headquarters on the basis of actual operating requirements
and will be specifically authorized in writing,

b. Assignments to said units v/ill be in the following categories - (p

* (4)Coimnanding Officer, (2) Pilot, (3) Flight (5) tiechanic, (6) Jnechanic • Tow Reel,
Piaster Mechanic-Ehagineering Officer, Surgeon, (See paragraph 18 hereof),

(7) Radio Technician, (8) Technical Section Head, (9) Clerk Technician, (lO)

Service Technician, and (11) Security Technician,

Operations Directive No. 41

c. The folloY/ing staff positions v/ill be filled by appointinents made by

the Unit Coimnander from among the pilots assigned to the unit: - (l) Operations

Officer, (2) Maintenance Officer, (3) Asst. Operations Officer, (4) Airdrome
Officer, (5) Supply Officer, (6) Asst. Maintenance Officer, (7) Asst. Airdrome
Officer, (8) Asst» Supply Officer, The pilots so appointed v/ill perform all
the functions of said staff positions in addition to their regular duties as

d. The pilot appointed to serve as Maintenance Officer will have a broad

background of mechanical and maintenance experience and, v/ith the aid of the
Assistant Maintenance Officer, vill handle all administrative matters pertainin^^
to maintenance and repair. The Master Mechanic-Engineering Officer (formerly
designated as Engineering Officer and still carried under this designation on the

fiscal schedules) will function under the supervision of the Maintenance Officer

and v/ill devote his entire time and skill to the actual handling of the specialized

work in the maintenance and repair shops. He will be carried on pay vouchers
under the former designation of Engineering Officer. On all rosters and other
reports, he will be carried as Master Mechanic.
4 » M a n n i n g Ta b l e

c. Flight Surgeon
d. Master Mechanic-^Engineoring Officer
" . M e1 h a n i c
( c)

M( 1h) n i c , To w R e e l .
ec a

R a d i o Te c h n i c i a n

i . C l e r k Te c h n i c i a n

I f S e r v i c e Te c h n i c i a n

k * S e1 u r i t y Te c h n i c i a n
" ( c)

a* When any member of Civil Air Patrol is placed on- active duty with

a Tow Target Unit^ his duty assignment with the unit v/ill determine his rank and
grade, in accordance with the table presented in paragraph 4- hereof, except that
personnel transferred to Tow Target Units with redesignated Coastal Patrol Units

will retain the rank and grade held in the Coastal Patrol Unit. Upon completion
of active duty assignment, said membei^s rank and grade will be,that corresponding
to his assignment within his State Wing,
. b . I n o r d e r. t h a t c o m m i s s i o n c e r t i fi c a t e s m a y n o t b e i s s u e d t o p e r s o n n e l

who, after a trial period, prove incapable of efficiently performing the duties of
their assignments, said certificates will be issued only upon receipt by National
Headquarters of written recommendation from the Unit Commander following a onemonth trial period. In accordance with this procedure. Unit Commanders will sub
mit to National Headquarters recommendations for commissions covering only those

individuals who, upon completion o£ qne month of service in assignment have
satisfactoriiy demonstrated their ability and qualifications to perform success
fully the duties involved*
6* Succession of Command

a. During the absence of the Commanding Officer, the next ranking staff
officer will succeed to command in the order listed in the foregoing paragraph 3 c.

b. If the Commanding Officer is away from his base for a short period
of time on an informal leave of absence, or for other reasons, the assumption of
c o m m a n d b y t h e n e x t r a n k i n g s t a ff o f fi c e r v / i l l b e a n n o u n c e d t o a l l p e r s o n n e l o f
the base by the officer assuming command. Such notification may be oral or in
the form of a Special Order,
c. If the Commanding Officer is authorized by National Headquarters to

be av/ay from his base for an extended period of time, the assumption of coHunand
b y t h e n e x t r a n k i n g s t a ff o f fi c e r v / i l l b e a n n o u n c e d t o a l l p e r s o n n e l o f t h e B a s e ,

to National Headquarters, and to appropriate Army ai^thorities, by the officer
aasviming command. Such notification v/ill be by means of a Special Order,
7, Membership Requirement

Assignments to Tow Target Units v/ill be limited to properly qualified
wembers of the Civil Air Patrpl holding official fciembership Identification Cards#
No applicants for enrollment who do not hold official identification card's v/ill
be assigned to duty with said Dyiits, including temporary duty, except upon v/ritten.
authorizati<?n from National Headquarters, Non-members of the Civil Air i'atrol

will ix>t be permitted to engage in any target operatixaas#
- 3 -

Each person serving in any capacity with Tow Target Units will be required,^
to execute the following Active Duty Oath, which will be filed with the Commanding
O f fi c e r i m m e d i a t e l y u p o n r e p o r t i n g f o r d u t y, a n d w h i c h w i l l b e r e t a i n e d i n t h e
files of the Unit* Copies of said Active Duty Oath will be supplied by the
Comifianding Officer.
"I, a member of the Civil Air Patrol, an auxiliary of the
Army Air Forces of the United States of America, having

been assigned to active duty v/ith Civil Air Patrol here- ^
by voluntarily enlist subject to any and all orders of
the National Commander of Civil Air Patrol to a term of

months, commencing 194 > and X hereby
agree to be available for duty continuously and at all
times during said term.

During said term and any extension thereof, I do solemnly
swear that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the
United States of America that I will serve them honestly

and faithfully against all their enemies whomsoever that
I will fully and faithfully perform all duties assigned
to me and obey the orders of the President of the United
States'ahd the'orders of the officers appointed over me
s u b j e c t t o t h e r u l e s a n d A r t i c l e s o f Wa r,
In the event that I shall not report or be available for

active duty at any time during said term or any extension
thereof which I shall voluntarily undertake, or if I shall
not faithfully and fully perform all duties assigned to me,

I hereby consent to the revocation and cancellation of my
license to own, operate and service any aviation and radio
9» Procurement and Assignment of Personnel and Aircraft

a. Requisitions for assignment and replacement of personnel and airplanes
for Tow Target Units vfill be submitted in writing to National Headquarters by
Unit Commajiders.

b. No per diem payments will be made to any personnel assigned to said
Units nor v/ill any payments be made for the use of any airplanes assigned to said
Units unless said assignments have been made by National Headquarters#
c. Orders terjninating assignments of personnel and aircraft to Tow Target

Units will be issued by National Headquarters,

d» The assignment and reassignment of individuals within said units will
effected by Special Orders issued by Unit Commanders. Said assignments vill be
only to such positions as are herein set forth in paragraph Forms for such
orders will be substantially as follov/s:

M Operations Directive No, 41

CIVIL air Patrol

1, (First Name) (Ndddle Initial) (Last Name) (Serial No, ),

Smiadron No. , Wing No. having reported to this Headquarters
, National Headf Special Orders No
pursuant to paragraph No,

quarters, Civil Air'Patrol, dated , is hereby assiped to duty (as design
ation of position listed in Table of Organization), effective , . (d^e> .
(Name Signed)

1 - (individual (s) Named in order)

e. Orders issued by Tow Target Units effecting changes ^ duties and assip-

ments of personnel, v/ill be marked for distribution so as to include the folloifing
as indicated in the model Special Orders given in paragraph 9 d above: 2 copies.

National Headquarters^ 1 copy to each individual named in orderj 1 copy, Unit file
10, Minimum Period of Assignment

Assignments of personnel and airplanes to CAP Tov/ Tarpt Units will be limite*
'to personnel and airplanes available for such duty for periods of not less than
ninety (90) consecutive days,
11 . R e a s s i g n m e n t s
. L '

Personnel and airplanes assigned to Tov/ Target Units are subject to reassign-

ment from one Unit to another or to other CAP operations by National Headquarters
at any time, as the situation may require.
12« Leaves of Absence

a. Personnel g^ssigned to Tov Target Units may be granted leaves of absence
.on Special Orders issued by direction of the Unit Commanders, Individuals on
leave of absence cannot be paid Per Diem Allowances during such periods, as

Federal Regualtions prohibit per diem payments for periods when personnel are not
o n d u t y,

b. The *'one rest day per v/eek" for which provision is made in paragraph 2^

Operations Directive No, 42 is for the purpose of maintaining physical fitness.

Rest, days are not cumulative,

13. Transfer of Service Records

a» The CAP Service Record of an individual assigned to active duty v/ith a

Tow Target Unit will be transferred from the files of his local CAP squadron

flight) to the files of the Unit to which he is assigned. The following method^'

(1) When a member of CAP receives an assignment to active duty
with a Tow Target Unit he will so inform his Squadron Commander.
The latter will provide the assigned member with his Service
Record in a sealed envelope which v/ill be delivered to the
TTU Commander upon arrival♦

(2) The TTU Commander will acknowledge receipt of the Service
Record, by letter, direct to the Squadron Commander* This
letter will be retained in the Squadron file until the assigned
member is released from active duty and returns to his local unit.
(3) The TTU Commander will enter on the Service Record^ such
remarks as are necessary to indicate the length of the tour of

duty, the duty assignments performed, and the manner of
performance, Vftien the individual leaves the Unit permanently,
the Unit Commander will forward the Service Record direct to

the Squadron Commander by mail. The individual leaving the
Unit will not be provided with his Service Record for delivery W
to the Squadron Commander♦
14, Civil Air Patrol Uniforms

All personnel assigned to Tow Target Units will report to the Unit Commander
in regulation Civil Air Patrol uniform and v^ill vear regulation Civil Air Patrol
uniforms while on duty. Said uniforms v/ill have securely sewed to the outer half
of the left sleeve thereof, one-half inch below the shoulder seam, the official
Civil Air Patrol shoulder patch. The wearing of any uniform or insignia other

than that prescribed for the Civil Air Patrol is strictly prohibited,^ Under no
circumstances v/ill flight personnel be permitted to go out on any official mis
sions in civilian clothes. Uniforms will be kept clean, in proper state of
repair, and neatly pressed at all times.
15, Niembership Identification Cards

All personnel assigned to Tow Target Units will carry with them at all times
while on duty their official Membership Identification Cards and copies of the
Special Orders issued by National Headquarters assigning them to said Units,

All personnel assigned to Tow Target Units who do not hold certificates from

. the American Red Cross indicating that they have satisfactorily completed thewFirst Aid Course for Civilian Defense will be required by Unit Commanders to
this course of instruction as soon as practicable after reporting for duty,
- 6 -

Gporations Directive No» 4-1

a. All pilots assigned to duty with Tow Target Units will be required to
hold currently effective Civil Aeronautics Administration Airman Certificates of
t h e g r a d e o f P r i v a t e P i l o t , o r h i g h e r, a n d t o p o s s e s s t h e f o l l o v ^ i n g q u a l i fi c a t i o n s

(1) Shall have officially logged a minimum of 200 hours as a pilot,
(2) Shall hold a currently effective Federal Communications
Commission Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit,

(3) Shall have a practical working knowledge of air navigation

and be skilled in the use of the air navigation computer in
the solution of ground-speed and radius-of-action problems
and in the calculations involved in the preparation of
complete flight plans.

b. Before making final assignments, Unit Commanders will verify the quali
fications of each pilot and make certain that such pilot has the necessary
ability to perform the duties to be assigned,

a. Except in cases where adequate flight surgeon service is available from
local military units, the Commanding Officer of each Tow Target Unit will endeavor
to enlist tho interest of a reputable local physician and surgeon in- making appli
cation for membership in Civil Air Patrol incident to assignment as Flight
Surgeon at the Base with the rank of First Lieutenant, Said assignments v/ill be

made by National Headquarters on the recommendations of the Unit Comm.anders,

b, Flight Surgeons will be available on call for emergency service in case
of accidents" and will make regular semi-monthly inspections of sanitary and living
conditions and first-aid facilities and of the general health and physical fit

ness of the personnel on duty at the Units, Said inspections will in each case
be covered by,a written report v/hich will be submitted to the Unit Go^iinander in
duplicate. One copy of the report will be retained in the Unit File and one
copy T/ill be forwarded by the Unit Commander to National Headquarters by indorse
ment thereon, which will include a statement as to steps being taken to correct
any deficiencies set forth in tho report.

Flight Surgeons will be required to become thoroughly familiar with all

material presented in War Department Technical J/ianual (TOi 1-705) - "Physiological
Aspects of Flying and Maintenance of Physical Fitness" - and in Navy Department

Training Manual "Effects of Flight", published under the supervision of the
Training Division of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics - copies of v/hich manuals
may be obtained from NationfiJ. Headquarters.

d. Flight Surgeons will receive an allowance of $8,00 for each such semi
monthly inspection and for each day they are called to the Ease for said emergency
service in case of accidents,
- 7 R E S ' T R I C T E D

e. In cases where a reputable physician and surgeon is on duty with a Tow
Target Unit in one of the full-time assignments, he may be assigned to act as
Flight Surgeon in addition to his regular assignment. In such event, his per
allowance will be at the rate of $6,00 even though the per diem allowance cor
responding to his regular assignment is at a lower rate,
19 * Mechanics
a. On account of the limited number of certificated A & E Mechanics avail

able for assignment to CAP operating bases and stations, it may be impossible t-'""
assign more than one such mechanic to a Unit, the other mechanics being men who^
are not certificated but who are qualified to do the work under the direction of
the certificated mechanic. The liaster Mechanic will be a certificated A & E

b. Tow reel mechanics will be responsible for the care, servicing, and
operation of tov/ing windlasses and all other special tow target equipment carried

in airplanes assigned to this service, and will be given special instruction in
this vfork. When not actually engaged in such duties, they will be assigned to

the general maintenance and repair*vork of the Unit* When on detached tow target

operations, said mechanics, under the supervision of tl^e pilots, will be respon

sible for the proper care and maintenance of the airplanes to whidh assigned and
will see that airplanes are properly tied down when parked in the open,
20, Airplanes

a. UniJ.ess otherwise specifically authorized in writing by National Head
q u a r t e r s , a l l a i r p l a n e s a s s i g n e d t o To w Ta r g e t U n i t s w i l l b e r e q u i r e d t o h a v e
two-way radio-telephone, to be equipped for instrument flying and to have a<

cruising range of not less than three hours and fifteen minutes, (A cruising

range of not less than four hours is preferred,) All instruments will be required
to be in proper adjustment and in good working order,

b . To d e t e r m i n e t h e H o u r l y R a t e s t o b e p a i d f o r t h e u s e n f a i r p l a n e s

assigned to Tow Target Units (See paragraph 23 hereof), the horsepower rating

(maximum, except take-off) recorded by the Civil Aeronautics Administration for

each such airplane v/ill be used. The use of higher octane fuels, changes in
propeller pitch and such other methods of""souping up" an engine, will not be
considered in any way as affecting the horsepower rating or ae effecting a change
in the Hourly Rates,
c . A l l a i r p l a n e s a s s i g n e d t o To w Ta r g e t U n i t s w i l l b e r e q u i r e d t o h a v e a
currently effective Civil Aeronautics Administration Airworthiness Certificate
w h e n r e p o r t i n g f o r d u t y,
d. Any airplanes which report for TTU duty and vfhich do not meet all of the
foregoing requirements will be rejected and will be required to return to their
homo stations at no expense to the Government,
e. In order to insure continuity of operations, it is desirable that air

planes report for duty v/ith an extra propeller and an extra battery,
- 8 .

f . A l l a i r p l a n e s o n d u t y w i t h C A P To w Ta r g e t U n i t s w i l l d i s p l a y o n w i n g s
and fuselage distinctive markings to distinguish them from other airplanes, includ
i n g o t h e r C i v i l A i r P a t r o l a i r p l a n e s , n o t a s s i g n e d t o t h i s d u t y. T h e s e m a r k i n g s ,
which will in each case consist of a blue disk vdth superimposed vrhito triangle
without the red three-blade propeller of the basic Civil Air Patrol insignia, will
be displayed only on airplanes on duty with GAP Tov Target Units, Airplanes dis
playing this marking will be flown exclusively by Civil Air Patrol pilots on
a c t i v e d u t y w i t h To w Ta r g e t U n i t s , I n s i g n i a d i s k s p l a c e d o n w i n g s w i l l b e c e n t e r e c
on the top side of the left wing and on the bottom side of the right wing at a
point one-third of the distance from the wing tip to the fuselage. The diameter
of said disks will not exceed two-thirds of the v^ing chord at the point of appli
cation, Insignia disks placed on the fuselage will be centered on both sides of
the fuselage at a point one-third of the distance from the leading edge of the
horizontal stabilizer to the trailing edge of the v/ing. The diameter of said disks
will not ojxceed two-thirds of the depth of the fuselage at the point of applica
t i o n , To 7 Ta r g e t U n i t C o m m a n d e r s w i l l s e e t h a t a l l a i r p l a n e s o n d u t y w i t h t h e i r
units are properly marked in accordance with the foregoing and that vvhen airplanes
are relieved from Tow Target duty said markings are either removed therefrom or
have the standard rod three-blade propeller of the basic Civil Air Patrol insignia
superimposed on the v^hite triangle thereof. The red three-blade propeller
appearing on the basic Civil Air Patrol insignia will not be displayed on markings
used on airplanes on duty with CAP Tow Target Units,

Each airplane ordered to report for duty will undergo a regulation 100-Hour
Inspection covering the entire airplane, including the powerplant, immediately
before departure from its home station and such inspection will be properly certi
fied in the Airplane Log Books, Any airplanes reporting for duty without such

certified 100-Hour Inspections and/or which are found to be in an unairworthy
condition will not be acceptcd for assignment to duty nor permitted to remain at

said bases, until such certified inspections have been accomplished and/or such
airplanes have been put in an airworthy condition,

^ a . A l l a i r p l a n e s o n d u t y w i t h C A P To w Ta r g e t U n i t s w i l l b e r e q u i r e d t o b e
equipped vith radiophone transmitters of at least six watts power output in the
medium-high frequency band of 3>000 to 4,500 kc, and with radio receivers to

receive in the airways band of 200-400 kc and in the medium-high frequency band.
National Headquarters will provide radio converters for installation'in airplanes

equipped v/ith radio receivers designed to operate only in the airways band of
200-400 kc in order that said airplanes may also receive in the medium-high
frequency band,
b. There will be a low-power radio ground transmitter set up at cach Unit
to control operations. This transmitter will operate on a frequency of either
3530 kc or 3980 kc as may be assigned by National Headquarters, which frequencies
have been allocated to Civil Air Patrol by the Office, of the Chief Signal Officer
for exclusive use by CAP operating units on active duty assignment for the armed
forces. There will be at least tvo radio ground receivers to receive radiophone
signals in the medium-high frequency band. Said receivers will be equipped with
- 9 R E S T R I C T E D

c. In cases where the voluiao of radio communications necessary for the

conduct of operations is such as to :cause objectionable interference on the
standard aircr,aft calling frequency, of 3105 kc, it will be necessary for the
aircraft transmitters to be operated on the CAP frequency assigned to the Base
transmitter,, even though it may be necessary to modify said aircraft transmitters
in order to permit such operations#

d. All radio transmissions will-be brief, concise, and in accordance with ■

AAF and CAa regulations and will be' restricted to the barest minimum absolutely
necessary for the conduct of official operations. Violations of this requirement
vill be severely dealt v/ith,
23» Reimbursement Schedules

a. Reirabursement Schedules setting forth the Per Diem Allowances for per
sonnel on active duty assignment with CAP Tow Target Units and the Hourly Rates
and Stand-ly Allowances paid for the use of aircraft assigned to said Units are
presented in Operations. Directive N.o, 42, ''Reimbursement Schedules - CAP Tow

Target and Tracking Service", Said Per Diem allowances for personnel and said
Hourly Rates and Stand-by Allowances for the use of aircraft are the only allow
ances made by the Government to cover living expenses and personal services of
personnel and expenses, both tangible and intangible, incident to the operation

maintenance, overhaul, repair, depreciation, replacement and insurance of air
craft on duty with said Units,

b. The amounts specified in said Reimbursement Schedules for operation and
maintenance will be set aside and placed in a general pool to be used for the

purpose of operating and maintaining the aircraft on duty with each Unit as well
as the base of operations* The amounts therein specijTied for insurance will bo

used for that purpose. The amounts therein specified for depreciation will be
paid to the owners of the aircraft. There will be no departure from this

c. All Per Diem and Airplane Vouchers will be submitted to National Head
quarters as of the fifteenth and last day of each month, Standrty Allowance

Vouchers will be submitted to National Headquarters as of the last day of each

month. No vouchers calling for payments in excess of the rates scheduled herej»,^
wili be approved, nor will payments be approved for personnel or airplanes
exceeding the authorized strength*
24^ Required Insurance

a. The insurance required on all CAP TTU operations is hereinafter set forth
and no aircraft will be put in service on said operations until such insurance has
been secured by the completion of an appropriate application form. Even thougl 0

applicat4.on form has been completed, all types of insurance are in effect from ^e
time a plane leaves its home station under orders to report to a TTU base, but in
each instance the appropriate application form will be executed by each aircraft
owner or hXs agent and by all flying personnel immediately upon arrival at saidbase. The details of the various types of insurance and the procedures to bo
lowed in connection therewith are set forth in General Memorandum No, 61-A, this

Headquarters, subject "Civil Air Patrol Insurance Inforination", dated

b. Crash. Accident and Liability Insurance The-preirdiim"for all
types of insurance v/ill be paid froiu the aircraft allov/ances set forth
schedule of Hourly Rates for Aircraft presented in Operations Directive
The hourly premium charge for'those three typos of insurance issued in
tion v/ith the operations of aircraft of the various horsepov/er ran^s

in the
No, 42#
will be

as listed in said schedule.

c. Ground Insurance - The preniun for Ground Insurance on each aircraft on

duty at TTU bases or dispatched therefron on missions elsewhere (including the day
the plane takes off froia its hone station under orders to report for duty at a

TTU base until the plane returns to its home station at conclusion of service)

will be paid from the Stand-by Allov/ances set forth in the schodule of Stand-by
Allowances for Aircraft presented in Operations Directive No, 42 which is exactly
sufficient to cover such premium.

Questions Regarding Schedules - Any questions regarding schedules or

other requirements sot forth herein v/ill be referred to National Headquarters

for a decision before any commitments are made by Unit ConUiianders ♦
25« Operations Orders

All flints of whatsoever nature performed by aircraft assigned to Tow
Target Units will be authorised by Operations Orders issued by direction of the
CoKihianding Officer of the CaP unit frora v/hich the operations are conducted.
Operations Orders riiay be vrritten or posted in the form of a schedule on the

operations board* In either case, the Comrianding Officer is strictly responsible
for a clear understanding, by all personnel concerned, of each order issued,
CAP Form No, 607, Daily Operations Reports vhen executed and signed by the Unit
Gomr.iander, is a complete record of all flights performed on .a particular day
and is a certification that all flights so reported were authorized by Operations
Orders* This report is required to be filed each day with National Headc|uarters
as set forth in paragraph 37 hereof,
26* Flight Assignments

No pilot will be assigned to any particular mission which, in the opinion
of the Unit'Commander, he is not qualified to perform nor will any airplane be
assigned to any such mission if, in the opinion of the Unit Comr/iander, said

airplane is not airworthy, properly equipped, or otherwise qualified for the
successful performance of the mission,
27, Observance of Regulations

All flying vill be done in strict accordance with the requirements of (a)
the Civil Air Regulations, (b) any special clearance 'and flight regulations of

the Army Air Forces and the Civil Aeronautics Administration, (c) applicable
Civil Air Patrol directives, and (d) local regulations,
- 1 1 -

a. Strictest safety standards as to flight procedures ^d airworthiness ^

of airplanes will be maintained at all tiraes. Either the Unit Comi^ander, or

the Operations Officor acting for him or the pilot nay cancel any flight on
the gronnds of safety,

b« The following special safety regulations will bo observed in the performanoe of all tov/ing and tracking missions,

(1) In all night missions, if the towing or tracking airplane shOTS w
its landing lights, all searchlights v/ill go out of action with
o u t d e l a y,

(2) When more than one airplane is used on a night mission they 7ill
be separated in altitude by a minimuiri of lyOOO feet,

(3) No night nission will be flovm v/ithout navigation lights bolov
3,500 feet above the ground,

(а) Under no circuiAstances will a towing mission be performed at night
below 1,500 feet above the ground and this minimum altidude r.ay

be raised at the discretion of the tow target squadron comr.iander^^

(5) The Tiiinimur.! altitude flown on any towing mission will not be less
than one-half of the length of the tow cable.

(б) The Liinimui.! length of tov cable for each mission-will be prescribed
by the antiaircraft unit requesting the mission,

ow arget Units my perform such courier service for the iiAF as may be
specifically authorized in writing by National Headquarters. In case
services involve expenditures extending beyond the limits of fi^ds available ^
to National Headquarters, it will be necessary for the AAFacti^ty desiring
such service to arrange for the necessary increase in the fiscal allotments
to this Headquarters,
30, Passengers and Cargo

a. No passengers will be carried in CAP airplanes assigned to the- operations

of CAP Tow Target Units except (a) such members of the armed forces

brsLfifi^liy authorized in writLg by the aaF agency for which said operations
are ^ing performed, or by CaP National Headquarters, to be carried as^ssengers
in subject aircraft and (b) CAP personnel regularly assi^ed to and actively
engaged in such operations, and/or members of the armed forces of the
StSL on active-duty assignment to. supervise and/or coordinate said operation^
- 1 2 -

b. Cargo carried in subject aircraft will be limited to,authorized
official military cargo and to equipnient and supplies required for the opera
tion of said GAP Tow Target .Units, No unauthorized cargo will bo carried.
31* Auxiliary Sorvice Flights

Auxiliary Service Flights, such as ferrying supplies, equipment and person

nel^ which nay be neccssary for the proper conduct of official business of TTU
Bases will, so far as possible, be performed by airplanes of not more than 90 h,p,
32. Special Service Flights

Except in cases of real emergency, v/ritten authorization will be obtained

from National Headquarters before any airplanes assigned to Tow Target Units
are used in the perfcrnrince of any Special Service F3a(^ts for other agencies,

iiny such SpeclaJV-ervice Flights ^^hich may be authorized by National Headquarters,

will, so far at? pofnih'lC be r»or»'orr.od Vy airpj.anos of not more than 90 h.p.
Cases of emergency . vrh.ichi in the opinion c-f ulje Unit Coi'iKiandor ^ justify a depar-^
ture from the proccduie iiarein priir'ori.ood wj.ll in each casn be covered by a

written report to N-oionaL ILeadqua"cers setting forth in detail (a) the factors
justifying such emerge.ncy action and (b) the mission performed.
33* Physical Training

The success of operations of the Tow Target Units depends to a large degree
upon the physical fitness of the personnel of these units. The required degree
of physical fitness can be acquired and riaintained only through proper and

systematic physical training. Therefore, all personnel except women, assigned
to said units v/ill be required to take at least fifteen (15) minutes per day,

six (6) days per week, of setting-up exercises in classes conducted by instructorr
appointed by the Unit Commander, The setting-up exercises used will be those
presented iia paragraph 74> War Department Basic Field Manual PIji 21-20, "Physical
Training", 6 March 1941 •
34, Military Courtesy and Discipline

a. The requirements of military courtesy and discipline, as set forth in

War Department Basic Field Manual FM 21-50, will be observed and maintained at

b. All operations of CaP Tow Target Units will be conducted for military

agencies and v/ill involve mciny contacts with military bases. It is imperative
that all CiiP personnel assigned to these operations present a neat, business
like appearance, that they conduct theuselvos in a manner becoming gentlemen,
and that all rules and regulations of, whatsoever nature in effect at said
military bases be carefully observed.

35♦ Infantry Drill
In order to develop precision of action, general efficiency and espri"b de

corps, all personnel on duty with Tow Target Units, except women, will devote ^
least one (l) hour per week to Infantry Drill, including Roll pall, Inspections,
and Reviews,

36, Care and Ufaantenance of Aircraft

All aircraft in operation with Tow Target Units will be maintained in a
thoroughly airworthy condition and will be kept clean and properly waxed. Pur
suant to the provisions of Operations Directive No, 35, this Headquarters, 2 Dbw*-

ember 194-2, each such aircraft will be given a thorough line inspection at least
once each day on which it is in operation and, if practicable, before each flight
37, Daily Operations Reports

Daily Operations Reports will be submitted to National Headquarters in single
copy only on CAP Form No, 607 and will adequately describe the nature of each

missions (e.g. towing, tracking, cargo flight to St, Louis), Said reports will

be signed by the Unit Commander and will be forwarded by ordinary mail in single
envelopes marked '^Fiscal Section",

a. All changes whatsoever in the assignment of personnel and airplanes

will be reported to National Headquarters on CAP Forms Nos, 636 and 636-A, within
twenty-four (24-) hours after effective date of change, A separate report will be

filed, in accordance with the following sample forms, for each individual and
for each airplane,

b. Changes affecting personnel include, but are not limited to, the follow

(1) Arrival at base pursuant to active duty assignment,
(2) Departure from base, whether permanent or temporary, if such departure constitutes a change in current assignment,
(3) Reassignment within the base*
(4) Leave of absence, without per diem, granted by TTU Commander,
(5) Return to base,
c. Changes affecting aircraft include, but are not limited to, the follow

(Ij Arrival at base pursuant to active duty assignment,

(2) Departure from base, whether permanent or temporary, if such de
parture constitutes a change in current assignment, including
d e t a c h e d d u t y,

(3) Loss of aircraft resulting from accident,
(4) Return to base,
- U -

C A P F o r m N o » 6 3 6 C I V I L A I R PAT R O L


1, Serial No. 2. Duty ^ 3. ^Effective date^

(Last name) (First name) (Middle initial)
5, a. Reported for duty. d. Change in duty assignment,
b . R e l e a s e d f r o m d u t y, ^ O t h e r : ^
c. Transferred from Unit,

6, Special Order Effecting Assignment or Change

* Date change actually took place


a. Reported for duty. On detached duty assignment

__e. Total loss by accident car flr|

Released from duty,
c. Tra n sfe rre d fro m U n i t,

6, . Special Order Effecting Assignment or Change

* Date change actually took place

d. Said reports will bo prepared in triplicate. The original and one

copy 7ill be forvmrded' to National -Headquarters, and one copy v/ill be retained

e. In order to maintain accurate records and to support per dien and air- ,

craft vouchers, it is ii/iporative that National Headquarters be kept currently
a d v i s e d o f t h e p e r s o n n e l a n d a i r c r a f t t u r n - o v e r. P e r D i e n a n d A i r c r a f t Vo u c h e r s

v/i1 "1 not be cleared unless "Report of Change" Forms are prepared and filed within
twenty--four (24) hours after chan'gD. ♦ '
3 9 , W e e k l y Te l e g r a p h i c R e p o r t s

a. Tow Target and Tracking Kdssions ^
(1) Weekly telegraphic reports covering all CiiP tov target afid
tracking missions will be forwarded to National Headquarters by TWX teletype
each Friday morning covering the seven-day period closing as of midnight the
previous Thursday night. In the absence of teletype service, such reports v^ill
be fonvardod cach Thursday night by comr.iercial telegraph,
(2) All said reports will indicate the designating nunber of the

Cap unit, the dates covered, and the following information (using the code

letter for each item foHov/ed by the figures representing the total for that ^
particular itom for the sovon-day period covered by the report):

No, of day tracking missions flown
No, of hours flovm on day tracking missions
No. of night tracking missions flown
No, of hours floivn on night tracking missions
No, cf day towing missions flown
No, of hours flown on day towing lidssions
No, of night tovfing missions flown
No. of hours flown on night towing missions
To t a l n o , o f h o u r s fl o v / n o n a l l t r a c k i n g a n 4 t o w i n g . m i s s i o n s

j No. of forced landings
K i^o, of airplanes -destroyed

M No, of personnel seriously injured
N No. of airplanes assigned to the unit as of closing date
. of report

0 No» of airplanes in coiiiLiission as of closing date of repu^

P No, of airplanes out of coLj.iission as of closing date of

Q , Na, of personnel assigned to unit as of closing date of
-16R E S T R I C T E D

(3) There v/ill also bo included in each such report, a brief state

ment of any special missions flown by authority of National Headquarters, and
also any emergency missions flown, stating in each case the number and nature

of such missions, the number of hours flovh, and any special accomplishments
resulting from such missions,

Tovv Target Units performing Courior Service under the provisions*of
paragraph 29 hereof, will include in their weekly telegraphic reports, a section
headed "aaF Courier Service" and covering said service, as follov/s:

. No, o f m s s i o n s
iio. o f h o u r s fl o v m

lbs. of cargo carried
forced landings
airplanes destroyed

No, o f
• No, o f
No,, o f f a t a l i t i e s
N o , o f porsonnel

seriously injured
airplanes assigned to courior service
porsonnel assigned to courier service

c,• Other Continuing Assignments '
Tm Target. Units engaged in the performance of other continuing assign
ments, such as schedjilod cargo sorvice, will include in their weekly telegraphic

reports, under appropriate headings,' sectdons covering each such assignraont and
presenting such information pertaining thereto as roay be directed by National
Headquarters» •

Confirmation copies of dll'wfcdkly telegraphic reports will be forwarded
to National Headquarters in single" envelopes by regular mail,

a In .cases of ^forccd lojidiiigs or other serious accident in connection with
Operations of Tow Target Units/"the Unit Coiaiaander or the officer acting for hii-i
will imLicdiately notify.National Hoadquarters by TWX teletype, telegraph, or
telephone, giving a brief resurae of available inforraation, together with make,
model and NC nui.iber of airplane and name arid serial nui-ibor of the pilot and of
any other personnel involved,
b. National Headquarters will bo similarly advised of any subsequenty impor
tant developements incident to such accidents, as circuiastances may dictate,
-17U E S T R I C T E D


c. As soon as possible after any such accident, a v/ritten report v^ill bo
dispatched to National Headquarters by the Unit Coim.iander giving all available
informtion regarding the accident in the Lianner prescribed in Operations

Directive No, 26, "Accident Reports - CAP Operating Bases and Stations",
41# Special Reports

Cap. To7 Target Units will submit to the First and Fourth Air Forces such
special reports as my be required,
42. Monthly Roster

a, A l/ionthly Roster (CAP Forn Nos, 620 and 620-a) of personnel on duty
with each Unit as of midnight of the last day of each month and including person

nel departing during the month, will be fonvarded to National Headquarters not
later than the 5th of the folloving month. Appended to each such report v/ill bo

an Aircraft Status Report v/ith break-dovm showing make and NC number of cac*
airplane assigned to the Unit (a) in comiidssion and (b) out of commission,
feiOnthly Rosters are required for use in checking pay vouchers and personnel^

b. (1) Names will be listed alphabetically within each category accordir
t o t y p e o f d u t y, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r, v / i t h i n d i c a t e d a b b r e v i a t i o n s : W

What did Ike say to launch the D-Day invasion?

The Supreme Allied Commander listened to his weather officer’s forecast, then observed as his commanders struggled to make sense of the report.

Finally, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, having ordered the biggest invasion force in history to a state of readiness, spoke: “The question is just how long can you keep this operation on the end of a limb and let it hang there.”

The next morning, Eisenhower arose at 3:30 and met with his staff again. He asked each one what he thought about launching the invasion of Western Europe the next day, June 6, 1944. They all said yes.

Then Eisenhower got up, paced around the room, pondering what was riding on this decision — the fate of millions.

Then he stopped pacing, looked at his commanders, and gave the go-ahead for the D-day invasion of Western Europe by the allies to bring down Hitler’s Third Reich.

But what words did Eisenhower use to give his commanders the green light 70 years ago this week?

Tim Rives, deputy director of the Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum in Abilene, Kansas, ponders that question in the latest issue of Prologue magazine.

“It is puzzling that one of the most important decisions of the 20th century did not bequeath to posterity a memorable quote to mark the occasion, something to live up to the magnitude of the decision,” Rives writes. “Something iconic like Gen. Douglas MacArthur’s vow to the people of he Philippines, ‘I shall return.’”

Eyewitnesses to Ike’s historic decision could not agree on what he actually said. Was it “Well, we’ll go” or “All right, we move” or “OK, boys, We will go.”

Even Eisenhower himself was not consistent in his recollections of what he said. In a 1964 article for Paris Match, he recalled that he said: “We will attack tomorrow.”

In his Prologue article, Rives explores the many recollections of that moment. Then, he tells us what Eisenhower himself remembered about that morning 70 years ago, when the tide of war began to turn in favor of the allies.

Songs from the Year 1944

This page lists the top songs of 1944 in the source charts. The way that the various charts are combined to reach this final list is described on the in the site generation page. There is also a set of monthly tables showing the various number ones on any date during 1944.

Between 1920 and 1940 there are few available charts (at least that we can find). These results should be treated with some caution since, with few exceptions, they are based on fairly subjective charts and biased towards the USA.

During this era music was dominated by a number of "Big Bands" and songs could be attributed to the band leader, the band name, the lead singer or a combination of the them. It is common, for example, to see the same song listed with three different artists. And, just to stop us from getting bored, the success of a song was tied to the sales of sheet music, so a popular song would often be perfomed by many different combinations of singers and bands and the contemporary charts would list the song, without clarifying whose version was the major hit. Where we have found such issues we have attempted to consolidate the entries using the most widely accepted value for the artist in each case.

The top ten song artists of 1944 were:

Previous Comments (newest first)

Where can I buy cd of Harry leader and his band singing if you evr go to ireland

#40 - Lale Andersen - Lili Marlene

This recording is the same as (& should be combined with) the 1939 entry byLale Andersen titled 'Lied Eines Jungen Wachtposten (Lili Marlen)'. Currently #44 in 1939.

#39 - Johnny Dennis - Mairzy Doates

To tie in with several other recordings with the same name the Song Titlehere should be changed to just ' Mairzy Doates ' (same as #21 here).

Gettin corns for my country

Was this song ever a bit song in USO circles in 1944 done the Andrew Sisters and Cass Daley?

Seach for "corns" on this site

#15 - My Heart Tells Me was also on Your Hit Parade (as #21). It's listed as by Casa Loma Orch.( which is Glen Gray's Orch. )+

That does look likely. We've fixed the data, thanks

Hello, I am currently +looking for a song with lyrics that reflect ww2 if you can help let me know

What was the number 1 hit song on Decenber 5 1944?

Look on the "Number ones" page perhaps?

Frank Sinatra "Bloop, bloop, bleep,bleep- the faucet keeps a dripin' and I just can't sleep."

Can someone tell me the words and name of the song that had "drip drip drip" in it.

Anyone know who sang this song? It goes Keep your eyes on Spring, Run whenChurch Bells ring, It5 could happen to you

The song "It Could Happen to You" was a hit in 1944 for both Jo Stafford and Bing Crosby

My grandmother wrote and submitted a song "G.I.Joe" about her son. I remember hearing it on the radio about 1943 or'44. Appreciate all help. Thank you Vic Heater

There is a song by Louis Jordan and Johnny Mercer called "GI Jive". The song "Linda" was nominated for an Oscar from the film 'The Story of G.I. Joe'.

Those are the only two songs we have listed that even come close.

Trying to find out a songs name

My grandfather was in the navy in WWII he has altimerz and he sings something like this all the time "curbside beauty mother"

This is a great way for me to show my grandchildren what music was like when I was a kid. It brings back memories.

The # 1 song and by whom of Dec. 30th. 1944

The first question is "where?", for example in Australia the number 1 song was "A Lovely Way to Spend An Evening" (with two versions by The Ink Spots and by Frank Sinatra).

We can see that you are from the USA so we suspect that you meant what was the number 1 song in the US.

So the next question would be "according to who?", there were no official charts published in the 1940s, the closest would be some occasional charts published by Billboard magazine. Billboard produced a variety of different charts starting in 1936 these were finally consolidated in 1958 into the "Hot 100" which has been published ever since (although the way they are calculated has changed of course).

In 1944 the "Best Sellers in Stores" chart is probably the most representative one. In that chart the number 1 record was:

"Don't Fence Me In" by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters

in the entry for the song above it says "US 1 for 8 weeks - Dec 1944" that means it was the Billboard "Stores" number 1 for 8 weeks starting in December 1944.

June: Thanks for the list of songs. They are great! Will try to find them at the mall next to the DQ! Love you for thinking of us. Dad

The execution of Pvt. Slovik

On this day, Pvt. Eddie Slovik becomes the first American soldier since the Civil War to be executed for desertion-and the only one who suffered such a fate during World War II.

Pvt. Eddie Slovik was a draftee. Originally classified 4-F because of a prison record (grand theft auto), he was reclassified 1-A when draft standards were lowered to meet growing personnel needs. In January 1944, he was trained to be a rifleman, which was not to his liking, as he hated guns.

In August of the same year, Slovik was shipped to France to fight with the 28th Infantry Division, which had already suffered massive casualties in France and Germany. Slovik was a replacement, a class of soldier not particular respected by officers. As he and a companion were on the way to the front lines, they became lost in the chaos of battle and stumbled upon a Canadian unit that took them in.

Slovik stayed on with the Canadians until October 5, when they turned him and his buddy over to the American military police. They were reunited with the 28th Division, which had been moved to Elsenborn, Belgium. No charges were brought, as replacements getting lost early on in their tours of duty were not unusual. But exactly one day after Slovik returned to his unit, he claimed he was “too scared and too nervous” to be a rifleman, and threatened to run away if forced into combat. His confession was ignored-and Slovik took off. One day later he returned and signed a confession of desertion, claiming he would run away again if forced to fight, and submitted it to an officer of the 28th. The officer advised Slovik to take the confession back, as the consequences were serious. Slovik refused and was confined to the stockade.

The 28th Division had many cases of soldiers wounding themselves or deserting in the hopes of a prison sentence that might protect them from the perils of combat. A legal officer of the 28th offered Slovik a deal: dive into combat immediately and avoid the court-martial. Slovik refused. He was tried on November 11 for desertion and was convicted in less than two hours. The nine-officer court-martial panel passed a unanimous sentence of execution, “to be shot to death with musketry.”

Slovik’s appeal failed. It was held that he 𠇍irectly challenged the authority” of the United States and that 𠇏uture discipline depends upon a resolute reply to this challenge.” Slovik had to pay for his recalcitrant attitude, and the military made an example of him. One last appeal was made-to Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander-but the timing was bad for mercy. The Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes forest was resulting in literally thousands of American casualties, not to mention the second largest surrender of an U.S. Army unit during the war. Eisenhower upheld the death sentence.

Slovik was shot and killed by a 12-man firing squad in eastern France. 

History 1944 – January

Just a note to let you know I’m still alive and kicking. We are going out with the 10th in just a few minutes. The New Year came and went amid shouts and revelry. We were all over at the Coyne– about 40 couples. Verne and Mary Grace came down Fri. aft. for the doings. She called Weds. night – wanted to know if I would come to Ft. Ben. – so she came here instead. We had a lot of fun with the Col -. Wink is in town putting them on the Bus.

Tonight, we are all going to relax and get a lot of sleep for a change.

Malm just got in from his leave – guess he too had a lot of fun. Verne said that she didn’t get my package at Christmas – hope it wasn’t lost.

Not a thing else to report. I feel real good and hope you all are finished with the flu. My love to one and all.

Monday – 3rd January 1944 1st Lt. Marriott – Post Card Home , Camp Gordon, Augusta, Georgia

Dear Family,
All’s well after a fine weekend. I finished work Fri at 1800, met Vern & Mary Grace & then went out to Coyne’s – everyone was there, and we all had a lot of fun. Sat night Wink, the gals Luis & Sally and I went out. Had fun again Sunday I had to work till 1800 so the gals went home at 1315. Tomorrow the umpires go out at 0830 – till the next morning. That’s our last day out. Will be glad to get back to the Battalion. Will write again in a few days.
Love to all

Field Manual FM 30-42 Military Intelligence Identification Of Foreign Armored Vehicles German, Japanese, Russian, Italian, And French

Monday – 10th January 1944 1st Lt. Marriott – Post Card Home, Camp Gordon, Augusta, Georgia

Dear Folks,
A real week ahead of us. Battery test 1, 2 and we’ve got to prov’em or we’ll all shoot ourselves. Wink, the Col. & I drove to Pinehurst N.C. Sat. Had a lot of fun – it’s real pretty there. It snowed all Sat. night & Sunday. Took some pictures don’t know if they turned out well though. Put the car in the garage to have the brakes adjusted. Saw that my check to dad was returned – can’t figure it out cause my stubs show enough. I know it was embarrassing for dad – hope he’ll forgive me. I’m going to check the books – cause I’m sure the bank made a 10.00 slip on my balance on Nov.
Love Tom.

Tuesday – 11th January 1944 1st LT. Marriott – Letter Home, From Camp Gordon, Augusta, Georgia

Again tonight, I hope to get into bead early. Last night it was 20:30, tonight – 22:00. After a weekend of rain – today was a real change – warm. I was able to park my new coat a while. It is the nuts – the warmest thing I own. I got dad’s letter with the income tax blank – my god – 2 have to pay about 250.00.

These people down here are the dumbest crew I’ve ever seen – Sat. I put I a gal. of Prestone – warned the men to be sure he shut the petcocks – Sunday afternoon it had all drained out. That was the easiest $266 I’ve ever spent. Now all I have to do is dig up some more of both. And that’s a real job.

Say – have you seen in the papers an ad showing some 10 in. boots that lace up about half way then have a leather flap that crosses over and buckles twice? It’s a new boot the army is putting out. If you see any – please let me know.

Have you heard from Don yet? And is Peg in Indiana yet? Bet Mrs. Zook will be glad to see Bob again – please give him my best. I have a chance to go to Sill for an extra course in Surviving – is will be a great advantage to me if I make it. Will let you know how it turns out.

More in a few days –
We go into the field next week for seven days.
Much Love,

Sunday – 16th January 1944 1st Lt. Marriott – Letter Home , From Camp Gordon Sunday Noon, Augusta Georgia

Another week is gone – and it was a real rough one to. We had our Battery test again – the same one that we had at Ft. Benning. We did a pretty fair job – in spite of everything. The “forward observer” problem I shot wasn’t too bad – I got 100% effect in the mortar emplacement. The next day we ran our survey – we didn’t do as good as I had hoped – but good enough to pass. The latter part of Feb. we take our Battery Tests. If we pass then we’ll be 95% closer to doing our “main” job. The Col. has said that if we pass – we’ll have a party we will never forget.

Mrs. Mercado still in Pinehurst – we may go back up there in a week or so. It’s terribly pretty country. Didn’t you and dag go through there several years ago?

It has rained here for a couple of days – but that didn’t stop our work.

I got the car back Thurs. It sure does run good. The tires are getting smooth again.

Do you remember Bob Long of Chattanooga? He’s here at Gordon – married & has a real nice wife. His sister was here and I saw her here last night.

I have found out why my check for 40.00 was returned by the bank. I knew at the time I wrote it that I had $48.00 left on the stub. The error was that a November check for $10.00 was cleared the 3rd of Dec. and also the service charge of $1.29 for Nov. was taken out. It was all my fault for not knowing, and it’s too late to mend the damage of Dad’s embarrassment in having to go to the Title for a check.

I got my coat yesterday – it sure is nice and warm. Could have used it during the rain – instead I got wet instead.

The 3rd Corps is on its way – we are now in the IX Corps.

Will write again in a few days.
Love to all,

Sunday – 24th January 1944 1st Lt. Mattiott – Letter Home , From Camp Gordon Monday Morning , Augusta, Georgia

Just a short note to let you know that everything is ok. In about an hour we leave for our week in
the field. If the weather holds and is as nice as it was this past week, all will be swell. It has been “shirt sleeve” weather all day long.

No more has been said about school, so I’ll let you know what happens.

Bet it was a thrill to hear from Don and I know you’re all just dying to know where he is exactly.

Ted Price has a daughter – born a week or so ago – Capt. Galway has a son – born just a couple of days ago -. What an outfit.

Nothing else to report – have got to get back to work.
Much love to all.

Wednesday – 26 th January 1944 1 Change In Organization

On 26 January 1944 the Battalion was reorganized under T/O & E 6-55 dated 31 July 1943 per letter, Army Ground Force, 13 January 1944, file 321/202 (FA)® GNGCT and redesignated as the 244 th Field Artillery Battalion (155mm Gun, Truck Drawn).

Wednesday – 26 th January 1944 2 Change In Organization

The Battalion was whipped into shape for the final firing test when the order came on the 26 th of January 1944 to convert to the 155mm – “Long Tom’s)”. A whirlwind of activity ensued in which we trained – passed the tests with flying colors – and presented ourselves for overseas shipment. Colonial Mercado was given a special mission and shortly before shipping time was replaced by Lieutneant Colonal John J. “By God” Davis.

Field Artillery School Fort Sill Oklahoma Individual Training Gun Mechanics 155-mm Howitzer

Colonial Davis Papers 3

I joined the 244th in the final days of training getting ready to go overseas. It had passed all its artillery tests to make sure that it was ready to go overseas and go into combat.

We did have some enlisted men who were from up in the north part of the United States, close to the Canadian border, and were French Canadians. So, we had people who spoke French and we also had some enlisted men who spoke German. We were pretty well off from that point of view.

155mm M1A1 With M1 Carrage Standard

The 155 mm M1 Long Tom

The M1 155 mm Long Tom is a 155 mm caliber field gun developed and used by the United States military with its M1 designation coming from its carriage. It was developed to replace the Canon de 155mm GPF and was deployed as a heavy field weapon during World War II. The gun could fire a 45.36 kg (100 lb) shell propelled by a 20.5 kg (45 lb) charge to a maximum range of 22 km (13.7 mi). The gun was design with an Asbury mechanism that incorporated a vertically hinged breech plug support. This type of breech used an interrupted-thread breech plug with a lock that opened and closed the breech by moving a single lever.

The gun is placed in its firing position with the gun pointed in the direction of fire, the trails were lowered, and the limber removed. Once on the ground, the limber-ends of the trail are separated to form a wide “v”. The carriage would then be lowered using the built-in ratcheting screw jacks, lowering the gun carriage to the ground. Recoil spades are placed at the limber end of each trail leg to make the gun very stable and assisted its accuracy during recoil. The recoil spades were transported in brackets on each trail legs.

The ammunition for the 155 mm gun was a shell and the powder charge packaged, shipped and stored separately. The shell was lifted into position behind the breach by two men using a cradling device and then rammed into the chamber to engage the shell’s rotating band in the barrel’s rifling by a third man. After ramming the shell home it was followed by loading a number of powder bags (1 to 7) as required to achieve the range necessary. The powder charge was placed by a fourth person.

Once the powder was loaded, the breech was closed and locked, a primer was placed in the breech plug’s firing mechanism. The azimuth and elevation was set and the gun was ready to fire. The firing mechanism was a device for initiating the ammunition primer by a continuous pull percussion hammer with a lanyard. The lanyard first cocks the firing pin and then fires the primer with a continuous pull. The primer then sets off the igniter which ignites the propelling charge creating 40,000 psi (275,790 kPa) of pressure (normal pressure under maximum charge) to propel the 45.36 kg (100 lb) shell.


SOMEWHERE in Italy (By Cable)—If this war in Italy had a symbol like the last war in France, which was symbolized by the trench, the symbol would be a bridge. In the endless rocky furrows of the Apennines and the river-creased coastal corridors to the east and west, bridges are both the sinews and the day to day impulse on which armies move. Whether he thinks about it or not no soldier in Italy, be he German or Yank, conscript or Gurkha from Nepal, marches a step, tires a bullet or carries out a planned military act of any kind that is not governed in some way by his own command’s conviction that such and such a bridge must be either destroyed and blocked or repaired and crossed.

Tliis is the story of one bridge—not of the bridge itself but of some of the things one itinerant camp follower heard and saw within its noisy orbit in a half dozen days of last November. When we first came there was no bridge at all—only the crumbling stumps of the pylons pointing mockingly at the mountains that rose sheer above the river bed. Half-ton blocks of stone lay in the shallow rushing water below a small concrete tlam.

Thid narrow gorge had become, for the time being, the nerve centre of the Eighth Army front above Campobasso. The Biferno River had been crossed farther up and lower down. Our troops were now feeling their way up a secondary road from Oratino. A mile away, as the crow flies, Castropignano gleamed with a deceptive white cleanliness in the cold autumn sun. Farther on, the frowning curve of the sky line rose to Torella and Molise. With the capture of these three nondescript villages the Biferno bridgehead would be sealed from Bojano to the Adriatic.

The engineers prodded down the drooping horseshoe of the road while the first infantry patrols fanned out to their flanks on the wooded slopes. It was slow hazardous work, for the German sappers had started mixing things up again by felling trees across their mine fields and attaching booby traps to them. And every now and then the German mortars, hidden somewhere over the next crest, barked in a symphonic interlude—ca-rur-nip! Depending upon what the

middle note told their expert ears about the range and direction of that particular shell, the soldiers either went on working and walking or flattened out against the shoulders of the road and the folds of the ground until the sound had died away.

By nightfall the infantry was able to send a reconnaissance unit across the gorge. Hub-deep in mud just off the roadsides, the artillery tractors had somehow dragged a couple of regiments of 25-pounders into range, and as a cloudy night plunged the stream into blackness our guns hammered angrily at the unseen foe. But guns alone can’t take foot soldiers across a

river. Black, shuffling shadows, spread far apart, filed down the last 100 yards to the river. At the edge a boot nudged a pebble top and the faint chink was followed by a fainter break in the rhythm of the water as it ran across the rocks. That was the first man’s step into the river. Now the infantry was oi its own.

It was not an easy journey. Wet to the knees, but intact, the patrol completed fording the river without incident and began the long circuitous climb up the rolling bank beyond. The heavy stillness was broken by a sharp, half metallic hiss and then a second later the crack of a shrapnel mine. One man lay dead, another wounded. By dawn the patrol had reached its objective. It had not had to fire a shot but its casualties had grown to six.

AGAIN night came and this time a whole L. battalion threaded through the river bed, scaled the far abutment and pushed into Castropignano itself. The artillery gathered in a mighty chorus behind the advancing companies, slashing the starless sky with livid streaks of flame and splashing orange shellbursts against the distant silhouette of the town. The Germans moved out fast. We occupied the town without infantry contact. There was no organized defense. Even Jerry’s ubiquitous mortars and his famous 88-millimetre field guns were in retreat.

But not his l*ig guns. They were already far back in the hills out of range of the stuff the Canadians had been able to bring up over the sodden roads within reach of the river bed.

Halfway through the gorge one of our companies caught the full impact of these German 150-millimetre guns. The German gunners had to time their salvos by instinct but this time their instinct was good and, of course, they had taped the range and bearing exactly, at least a week before. Every shell was aimed at the part of the river the Germans knew we’d have to use to get across, and every shell was on the target area. Miraculously there wasn’t a casualty. The officer who commanded the company that was going over when the. barrage reached its height used that wordmiraculous.

“We spread out and prayed,” he said. “There wasn’t much else to do. The stuff was ahead and behind, to the left and to the right and in the middle. There were 138 pounds in every shell. You can guess the arc of the burst for yourself. And not a soldier was hit. No man can explain how things can happen that way. Only God can explain and in all humility I believe that God marched across the Biferno with my company.”

The spearhead stopped in Castropignano for two days. A workable ford for men and mules was no longer enough. If the moving column was to keep up its momentum and be supplied with sufficient food and ammunition to carry on to Torella and Molise, a half dozen miles away, it would have to have a bridge capable of supporting guns and lorries built across the river.

First the engineers threw together what they call a Dutch bridge—a foundation of loose stones six inches under water. Jeeps and tracked vehicles could get across on this below the dam. Above the dam sappers blasted a clearing through the trees, bulldozed a rough diversion through the mud and laid the framework for a steel and wooden span which was to carry most of the traffic.

They were often under shellfire but the sappers, as they always do, worked swiftly and with a sort of reckless wariness. While we were waiting to get our jeep across their Dutch bridge, they hooked six German Teller mines together under a 14-inch spruce and pulled the chain. The tree went straight up like a fungo hit by a baseball player, cleared a line of other trees and dropped on the other side without scraping a branch. At its maximum height the tree must have been more than 100 feet clear of the ground.

“That,” said the sergeant in charge of the sappers, “will give you a rough idea why we don’t encourage people to run over Tellers.”

The traffic over the Dutch bridge was mostly priority stuff. There was no battle in progress ahead but mines and medium artillery don’t rest between battles. There were casualties coming back from up front. The stretcher-bearers had worked out an efficient relay system with one ambulance jeep on the far side of the river and another on the near side and two parties of bearers to transfer the patients from one to the other. They brought one man across, shapeless under a blanket. The soldiers picked their way carefully among the immersed rocks, laid their burden gently on the rack above the second jeep and paused to get their breath.

As the vehicles crept away the patient’s head stirred. One of the stretcher-bearers stood with his back to the river and watched the jeep out of sight. His expression was devoid of emotion but full of concentration as though he were looking at something that would be important for him to remember later.

“Friend of his,” one of the other stretcher-bearerá whispered. “Both arms, both legs.”

THE battalion that had occupied Castropignano rested there and another battalion passed through. The 25-pounders strained forward through the mud. A climb through the dirty shell-torn streets to the far edge of the town led to the best of many observation posts, from which our gunnery officers had already begun to redirect fire on the enemy’s new positions in Torella.

From a window I looked across a broad valley to where Torella sat on the horizon. A soldier on duty on the top floor warned, “Don’t show yourself. He’s got observation posts, too.”

And sure enough he had. In a top window in the biggest building in the town across the valley my binoculars clearly picked out the white speck of a human face. It stayed there for perhaps 20 minutes while our guns and theirs traded random bursts back and forth. Then, as neatly and as deliberately as a trick-shot artist showing off in a shooting gallery, our guns ran a geometric string of three black puffs under the window from which the face had gleamed. The rounds left three grey gouges in the side of the building. The face was gone.

Back down on the river the prelude to.another battle was mounting. A squadron of Sherman tanks ground through the river bed and nuzzled, one by one, up a 2,000-foot rise and then deployed and concealed themselves in a V-shaped grove of trees on the southern tip of a long ridge that started above Castropignano and ended at Torella. The.Colonel gave us tea while we watched the tanks complete the laborious ascent.

“Come back tomorrow,” he suggested.

Our press headquarters was a few miles down the line and we sat for three hours above the river crossing, waiting for the traffic to stop coming up so we could start back. A light drizzle began to fall at dusk. In an hour it thickened and began to slosh down the wet diversion to where artillery tractors were winching 25-pounders through the sticky holding clay.

There were no lights along the river bed but you could follow the progress of each gun with vour ears and picture exactly what was happening to it from the sounds that came up the hill on the sodden, cold night air. If the gun stuck, muffled curses and the desperate clash of gears and the stricken whine of a field artillery tractor whose wheels refused to grip could be heard. If the gun was making it, there was a murmur of encouraging shouts from the gunners straining at its wheels and then, as it gathered speed for the plunge over the crest and back to the level of the main road, you’d hear a united cry of savage pleading and triumph: “Give her

(something that can’t be mentioned)— !”

The line of vehicles on our side lengthened. You couldn’t see its length but you could sense it from the impatient footsteps that scrunched up from the rear of the column and the low voices, nervous with the urgency of a hundred missions.

“I’ve got to get my water truck back and up again before morning. They won’t let me run it up in daylight.”

“Do you think I could squeeze by on a bike, corporal? Message for the Brigadier.”

‘I’ve got to guide a mule train to the ^^8ty Pete’s.” (The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment was already eight miles away, marching overland into position for the attack on Molise.)

The M.P. on duty kept explaining, “It shouldn’t be long now.”

A match flared and drew a dozen angry shouts.

In the truck behind, someone told a joke. In the jeep ahead two officers were talking about duck shooting in western Canada.

“It wouldn’t do any good, anyway,” one of them said. “You can’t buy shells because the Army’s taken over all the factories.”

“Well, shells or no shells,” the other said stubbornly, “I still wish I was back home shooting ducks.”

At last the last gun made it and the downward backlog of traffic funnelled through the black, wet chasm. As our jeep hit the other side the first big shell Jerry had dumped in in six hours hit where the old bridge had been. Through its searing, star-long flash, chunks of wet earth spattered the raised top of the jeep and three jumpy war correspondents and one conducting officer yelled four separate sets of instructions to an equally jumpy driver. The driver wisely decided that what the situation called for wasn’t advice but more gas.

The battle for Torella was fought during the next morning and early afternoon on the ridge where our tanks had grouped for the take-off. The mopping up extended into the night but the decisive phase unfolded in a dip in the ground across which the assaulting infantry had to pass on its way from one high point to another.

When we returned to our observation post in Castropignano, the tanks had moved forward a mile and turned in file to crawl along the bare ridge just below its exposed crest. To their left and just behind them at the apex of a shallow valley was a stone farmhouse. To the right and three quarters of a mile ahead was another farmhouse. The first farmhouse marked the extreme of the northern boundary of that portion of Italy which belonged to the Eighth Army. The other marked the central tip of the receding German line.

Our artillery was beating up the area around the town but at first we saw no infantry. Then a dozen men crept into view around the corner of the house on the left. There was a puff of white smoke at a distance that seemed only 15 feet away and the soldiers scattered, loping down into the shallow valley. But the mortars followed them like pelting snowballs.

Then the tanks took over. A large part of battle tactics is only bullying, on a scientific plane. If a mortar starts bullying your rifle the smart thing to do is to look around for a bigger bully and enlist him on your side. Like accusing fingers the stubby guns of the Shermans circled and pointed over the hollow. Then, one by one, they erupted, paused, then erupted again.

As though drawn by magnetism the mortar bursts crept back up from the valley and splashed in among the tanks. One tank, more exposed than the rest, backed up a few yards and tucked its hull behind a little ripple in the earth. The rest stayed where they were and kept firing. One was lost in the sudden black curtain of a direct hit but when the smoke drifted away it was still spitting red, apparently undamaged. Up to then we had been wondering uneasily if the Germans might not have an even bigger bully of their own hiding back in the hills—a heavy antitank gun or perhaps an 88 supplied with armor-piercing shot. They hadn’t.

For nearly two hours the tanks sat under a thickening hail of mortar fire while the infantry regrouped and pushed across the dip in the shelter of their answering salvos. The tanks hammered at the house that had given harbor to the enemy’s forward infantry. Occasionally the rattle of an unseen machine gun broke the deep, monotonous drumming from the Shermans and the piercing crack of the mortar shells exploding.

The machine guns petered out as the German foot soldiers fell back and then the mortars packed up, too. Now, in the late afternoon, only the steady crash of Canadian 25-pounders and an occasional shot from the German big guns far away echoed above the receding arena. At night our troops went into Torella. They found it unoccupied.

We rode back to our billet again over the bridge that in these few days had stood between the paths of two armies like a turnstile to history, yielding passage to events and extracting from each event a certain cost. Ahead the tired Army has already begun to stir again, groping toward the next battle and the next bridge.

Every effort is made to have your copy arrive on time — but wartime brings transportation difficulties which occasionally may cause your copy to be late. If so, we ask your indulgence.

IX Air Defense Command : historical and statistical summary, 1 January 1944-1 June 1945

Publication date [19--] Usage Public Domain Mark 1.0 Topics WWII, World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations, American, World War II, World War, 1939-1945, United States. -- Air Force, 9th. -- Air Defense Command, United States. Air Force, 9th. Air Defense Command Publisher [Place of publication not identified] : [The Command] Collection wwIIarchive additional_collections Language English

IX Air Defense, Command Historical And Statistical Summary, 1 January 1944 - 1 June 1945 Table Of Contents Frontispiece 2 Forward 3 Table Of Content 4 A Combined Effort 5 Narrative 6 Organization Chart Of Command Headquarters 16 Flow Charts 17 Decorations 21 Disposition Maps 22 Types and Number of Units 25 Strength In Personnel 26 Total Claims 27 Story Of Antwerp "X" 28 Health Of The Command 38 Judge Advocate General Section 45 Battle Of The Bulge 49 AA in Ground Roles 51 Communications 53 Night Fighter Operations 58 AAA Searchlights 60 Weather 68 Supply 72 Ordnance 74 New Year's Day Raids 1945 78 IX ADC Truck Companies 81 Chaplain Section 82 Chamonix Rest Center 83 Information & Education 84 Special Service 90

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